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Friction in Related-Party Trade When a Rival Is Also a Customer

Author

Listed:
  • Anil Arya

    (Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

  • Brian Mittendorf

    (School of Management, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520)

  • Dae-Hee Yoon

    (School of Management, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520)

Abstract

There are many circumstances in which manufacturers provide inputs to wholesale customers only to subsequently compete with these wholesale customers in the retail realm. Such dual distribution arrangements commonly suffer from excessive encroachment in that the manufacturer's ex post retail aggression is harmful ex ante because it undercuts potential wholesale profits. This paper demonstrates that with dual distribution, a manufacturer can benefit from decentralized control and the use of transfer prices above marginal cost. Although these arrangements often create coordination concerns, a moderate presence of such concerns permits the manufacturer to credibly convey to its wholesale customer that it will not excessively encroach on its retail territory. This, in turn, permits the manufacturer to reap greater wholesale profits. We also note that this force can point to a silver lining in arm's-length (parity) requirements on transfer pricing in that they can solidify commitments to a particular retail posture.

Suggested Citation

  • Anil Arya & Brian Mittendorf & Dae-Hee Yoon, 2008. "Friction in Related-Party Trade When a Rival Is Also a Customer," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(11), pages 1850-1860, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:54:y:2008:i:11:p:1850-1860
    DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.1080.0906
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Kim, Bosung & Park, Kun Soo & Jung, Se-Youn & Park, Sang Hun, 2018. "Offshoring and outsourcing in a global supply chain: Impact of the arm’s length regulation on transfer pricing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 266(1), pages 88-98.
    5. Yang, Shilei & Shi, Victor & Jackson, Jonathan E., 2015. "Manufacturers׳ channel structures when selling asymmetric competing products," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 170(PB), pages 641-651.
    6. Zhang Guoxing & Fang Shuai & Lai Kin Keung, 2015. "Game Analysis in a Dual Channels System with Different Power Structures and Service Provision," Journal of Systems Science and Information, De Gruyter, vol. 3(6), pages 513-524, December.
    7. Wang, Qifei & Hong, Xianpei & Gong, Yeming (Yale) & Chen, Wanying (Amanda), 2020. "Collusion or Not: The optimal choice of competing retailers in a closed-loop supply chain," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 225(C).
    8. Choe, Chongwoo & Matsushima, Noriaki, 2013. "The arm's length principle and tacit collusion," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 119-130.
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    11. Dehghan Nejad, Omid, 2011. "Does customer relationship management matter in the banking system? the case of Iran," MPRA Paper 31478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Sun, Xiaojie & Tang, Wansheng & Zhang, Jianxiong & Chen, Jing, 2021. "The impact of quantity-based cost decline on supplier encroachment," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    13. Xiong, Yu & Zhou, Yu & Li, Gendao & Chan, Hing-Kai & Xiong, Zhongkai, 2013. "Don’t forget your supplier when remanufacturing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 230(1), pages 15-25.
    14. Romana L. Autrey & Francesco Bova & David A. Soberman, 2014. "Organizational Structure and Gray Markets," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 33(6), pages 849-870, November.
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    16. Baozhuang Niu & Qinquan Cui & Jie Zhang, 2017. "Impact of channel power and fairness concern on supplier’s market entry decision," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(12), pages 1570-1581, December.
    17. Li, Jin & Hu, Zening & Shi, Victor & Wang, Qian, 2021. "Manufacturer's encroachment strategy with substitutable green products," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 235(C).
    18. Marcel Goi'{c} & Kinshuk Jerath & Kannan Srinivasan, 2011. "Cross-Market Discounts," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(1), pages 134-148, 01-02.
    19. Moresi, Serge & Schwartz, Marius, 2017. "Strategic incentives when supplying to rivals with an application to vertical firm structure," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 137-161.
    20. Wei Yan & Hengyu Li & Junwu Chai & Zhifeng Qian & Hong Chen, 2018. "Owning or Outsourcing? Strategic Choice on Take-Back Operations for Third-Party Remanufacturing," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(1), pages 1-18, January.
    21. Arya, Anil & Mittendorf, Brian, 2013. "Discretionary disclosure in the presence of dual distribution channels," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 168-182.
    22. Serge Moresi & Marius Schwartz, 2015. "Strategic Incentives When Supplying to Rivals," Working Papers gueconwpa~15-15-05, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
    23. Pei-Cheng Liao, 2014. "Input Prices as Signals of Costs to a Downstream Rival and Customer," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 414-430, September.
    24. Alonso-Pauli, Eduard & Bru, Lluís, 2018. "Strategic delegation in procurement," MPRA Paper 84293, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. Li, Jin & Yi, Liao & Shi, Victor & Chen, Xiding, 2021. "Supplier encroachment strategy in the presence of retail strategic inventory: Centralization or decentralization?," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).

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