Understanding the Role of Trade-Ins in Durable Goods Markets: Theory and Evidence
The act of trading in a used car as partial payment for a new car resonates with practically all consumers. Such transactions are prevalent in many other durable goods markets, ranging from golf clubs to CT scanners. What roles do trade-ins play in these markets? What motivates the seller to set up a channel to facilitate trade-ins? Intuitively, accepting a trade-in would appear to stimulate demand for the producer's product, but facilitating the resale of these used goods that substitute for new goods might also increase cannibalization. Although such transactions involve billions of dollars, we know relatively little about this practice from the extant research literature. This paper develops an analytical model that incorporates key features of real-world durable goods markets: (i) coexistence of new and used goods markets, (ii) consumer heterogeneity with respect to quality sensitivity, (iii) firms that anticipate the cannibalization problem arising from the coexistence of new and used goods, and (iv) lemon problems in resale markets, whereby sellers of used goods are better informed than buyers about the quality of their particular item. In our analysis, a trade-in policy amounts to an intervention by the firm in the used goods market, which reduces inefficiencies arising from the lemon problem. It motivates owners to purchase new goods and reduces their proclivity to hold on to purchased goods because of the low price the latter would fetch in a lemon market. We also show that trade-in programs are more valuable for less reliable products, as well as for products that deteriorate more slowly. Our analysis shows that producers in durable goods markets should consider trade-in programs as a matter of routine. Despite cannibalization concerns arising from a more active resale market, a producer's profits will inevitably rise from introducing trade-ins, given pervasive lemon problems. We test the key predictions of the model about price and volume of trade by assembling a data set of transactions of U.S. automobile consumers and find broad support for our model.
Volume (Year): 28 (2009)
Issue (Month): 5 (09-10)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 7240 Parkway Drive, Suite 300, Hanover, MD 21076 USA|
Web page: http://www.informs.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ann van Ackere & Diane J. Reyniers, 1995. "Trade-ins and Introductory Offers in a Monopoly," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(1), pages 58-74, Spring.
- Simon P. Anderson & Victor Ginsburgh, 1994.
"Price discrimination via second-hand markets,"
ULB Institutional Repository
2013/1719, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Thomas W. Gilligan, 2004. "Lemons and Leases in the Used Business Aircraft Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(5), pages 1157-1186, October.
- Dmitriy Stolyarov, 2002. "Turnover of Used Durables in a Stationary Equilibrium: Are Older Goods Traded More?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(6), pages 1390-1413, December.
- Ayres, Ian & Siegelman, Peter, 1995. "Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining for a New Car," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 304-321, June.
- S. Huang & Y. Yang & K. Anderson, 2001. "A Theory of Finitely Durable Goods Monopoly with Used-Goods Market and Transaction Costs," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(11), pages 1515-1532, November.
- Devavrat Purohit, 1997. "Dual Distribution Channels: The Competition Between Rental Agencies and Dealers," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 16(3), pages 228-245.
- Rust, John, 1985. "Stationary Equilibrium in a Market for Durable Assets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(4), pages 783-805, July.
- Konishi, Hideo & Sandfort, Michael T., 2002.
"Existence of stationary equilibrium in the markets for new and used durable goods,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1029-1052, June.
- Konishi, H. & Sandfort, M.T., 2000. "Existence of Stationary Equilibrium in the Markets for New and Used Durable Goods," Papers 00-8, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
- Hideo Konishi & Michael Sandfort, 2000. "Existence of Stationary Equilibrium in the Markets for New and Used Durable Goods," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 450, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Preyas Desai & Devavrat Purohit, 1998. "Leasing and Selling: Optimal Marketing Strategies for a Durable Goods Firm," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(11-Part-2), pages 19-34, November.
- Jerome Adda & Russell Cooper, 1997.
"Balladurette and Juppette: A Discrete Analysis of Scrapping Subsidies,"
0076, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
- Jerome Adda & Russell Cooper, 2000. "Balladurette and Juppette: A Discrete Analysis of Scrapping Subsidies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 778-806, August.
- Jerome Adda & Russell Cooper, 1997. "Balladurette and Juppette: A Discrete Analysis of Scrapping Subsidies," NBER Working Papers 6048, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Adda, Jérôme & Cooper, Russell W., 1997. "Balladurette and jupette: a discrete analysis of scrapping subsidies," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9711, CEPREMAP.
- Gerard J. Tellis & Birger Wernerfelt, 1987. "Competitive Price and Quality Under Asymmetric Information," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 6(3), pages 240-253.
- Michael Waldman, 2003. "Durable Goods Theory for Real World Markets," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(1), pages 131-154, Winter.
- Copeland, Adam & Hall, George J., 2005.
"Prices, Production and Inventories over the Automotive Model Year,"
2, Yale University, Department of Economics.
- Adam Copeland & Wendy Dunn & George Hall, 2005. "Prices, Production and Inventories over the Automotive Model Year," NBER Working Papers 11257, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- George Hall & Adam Copeland & Wendy Dunn, 2005. "Prices, Production, and Inventories Over the Automotive Model Year," 2005 Meeting Papers 346, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Adam Copeland & Wendy E. Dunn & George J. Hall, 2005. "Prices, production, and inventories over the automotive model year," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Preyas S. Desai & Devavrat Purohit, 1999. "Competition in Durable Goods Markets: The Strategic Consequences of Leasing and Selling," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 18(1), pages 42-58.
- Mussa, Michael & Rosen, Sherwin, 1978. "Monopoly and product quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 301-317, August.
- Robert H. Porter & Peter Sattler, 1999. "Patterns of Trade in the Market for Used Durables: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7149, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Subramanian Balachander & Kannan Srinivasan, 1994. "Selection of Product Line Qualities and Prices to Signal Competitive Advantage," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(7), pages 824-841, July.
- Bulow, Jeremy I, 1982. "Durable-Goods Monopolists," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(2), pages 314-332, April.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou, 1996. "Dealer Price Discrimination in New Car Purchases: Evidence from the Consumer Expenditure Survey," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(3), pages 622-654, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:28:y:2009:i:5:p:950-967. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.