A Three Level Framework for Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management—Linking Society, Chain and Actor Level
Supply chain management and closed-loop supply chain management (CLSCM) have developed into established concepts in recent years. The related material cycles and product returns form an important part of all related processes with high potential for reducing environmental burden. The paper proposes a framework for (environmentally triggered) closed-loop supply chain management, spanning three different levels: the societal or governance, the chain and the actor level. Within each level, a set of activities or processes can be identified. Taken together, the levels allow a comprehensive analysis of a closed-loop supply chain system. This is illustrated building on two case studies in the textile and apparel industry, where closed-loop supply chains have been designed to take specific apparel products back. The case studies are analyzed against all three levels and allow exemplification of related challenges and interrelations among the three levels. The three levels contribute to the further comprehension of the multiple issues having to be taken into account for successfully implementing closed-loop supply chains.
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