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Performance of Anisole and Isobutanol as Gasoline Bio-Blendstocks for Spark Ignition Engines


  • Michał Wojcieszyk

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Lotta Knuutila

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Yuri Kroyan

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Mário de Pinto Balsemão

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Rupali Tripathi

    (Neste Corporation, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Juha Keskivali

    (Neste Corporation, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Anna Karvo

    (Neste Corporation, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Otto Blomstedt

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)

  • Martti Larmi

    (Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland)


Several countries have set ambitious targets for the transport sector that mandate a gradual increase in advanced biofuel content in the coming years. The current work addresses this transition and indicates two promising gasoline bio-blendstocks: Anisole and isobutanol. The whole value chains of these bio-components were considered, focusing on end-use performance, but also analyzing feedstock and its conversion, well-to wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs. Three alternative fuels, namely a ternary blend (15% anisole, 15% isobutanol, 70% fossil gasoline on an energy basis) and two binary blends (15% anisole with fossil gasoline and 30% isobutanol with fossil gasoline), were tested, focusing on their drop-in applicability in spark ignition (SI) engines. The formulated liquid fuels performed well and showed the potential to increase brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by 1.4% on average. Measured unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were increased on average by 12–29% and 17–51%, respectively. However, HC and CO concentrations and exhaust temperatures were at acceptable levels for proper catalyst operation. The studied blends were estimated to bring 11–22% of WTW GHG emission reductions compared to base gasoline. Additionally, the fleet performance and benefits of flexi-fuel vehicles (FFV) were modeled for ternary blends.

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  • Michał Wojcieszyk & Lotta Knuutila & Yuri Kroyan & Mário de Pinto Balsemão & Rupali Tripathi & Juha Keskivali & Anna Karvo & Annukka Santasalo-Aarnio & Otto Blomstedt & Martti Larmi, 2021. "Performance of Anisole and Isobutanol as Gasoline Bio-Blendstocks for Spark Ignition Engines," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(16), pages 1-19, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:13:y:2021:i:16:p:8729-:d:608615

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