IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

A heat- and mass-integrated design of hydrothermal liquefaction process co-located with a Kraft pulp mill


  • Ong, Benjamin H.Y.
  • Walmsley, Timothy G.
  • Atkins, Martin J.
  • Varbanov, Petar S.
  • Walmsley, Michael R.W.


This paper aims to establish a new standard process for heat and mass integration of hydrothermal liquefaction, co-located with an existing Kraft pulp mill, to produce bio-crude. Hydrothermal liquefaction is an energy-intensive process that operates at high temperature and pressure and produces a biocrude similar to conventional crude oil. The key advantages of installing hydrothermal liquefaction in proximity with a Kraft Mills enables the use of black liquor as a feed to hydrothermal liquefaction, asset repurposing and optimisation, as well as supply chain and logistics integration. This work follows a design process to increase the energy efficiency of the hydrothermal liquefaction process by using an iterative mass and heat integration procedure to optimise mass and energy flows and assets of the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The method uses process simulation tools, Pinch Analysis, heat exchanger network design tool, and the understanding of the process constraints to develop a heat exchanger network for the hydrothermal liquefaction process with maximum energy recovery, minimum number of units and enhanced mass integration. The number of heat exchangers in the network reduced from 14 to 7 when the proposed method was applied. Substituting bio-crude from the new integration hydrothermal liquefaction process for conventional fuels has the potential to decarbonise transport fuels by 11.3 kg CO2-e/GJ of fuel.

Suggested Citation

  • Ong, Benjamin H.Y. & Walmsley, Timothy G. & Atkins, Martin J. & Varbanov, Petar S. & Walmsley, Michael R.W., 2019. "A heat- and mass-integrated design of hydrothermal liquefaction process co-located with a Kraft pulp mill," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 189(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:189:y:2019:i:c:s0360544219319309
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Zhu, Yunhua & Biddy, Mary J. & Jones, Susanne B. & Elliott, Douglas C. & Schmidt, Andrew J., 2014. "Techno-economic analysis of liquid fuel production from woody biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 384-394.
    2. Nie, Yuhao & Bi, Xiaotao T., 2018. "Techno-economic assessment of transportation biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction of forest residues in British Columbia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 464-475.
    3. Brand, Steffen & Hardi, Flabianus & Kim, Jaehoon & Suh, Dong Jin, 2014. "Effect of heating rate on biomass liquefaction: Differences between subcritical water and supercritical ethanol," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 420-427.
    4. Gollakota, A.R.K. & Kishore, Nanda & Gu, Sai, 2018. "A review on hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1378-1392.
    5. Magdeldin, Mohamed & Kohl, Thomas & Järvinen, Mika, 2017. "Techno-economic assessment of the by-products contribution from non-catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulose residues," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 679-695.
    6. Walmsley, Michael R.W. & Walmsley, Timothy G. & Atkins, Martin J. & Kamp, Peter J.J. & Neale, James R. & Chand, Alvin, 2015. "Carbon Emissions Pinch Analysis for emissions reductions in the New Zealand transport sector through to 2050," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(P3), pages 569-576.
    7. Konstantinos Anastasakis & Patrick Biller & René B. Madsen & Marianne Glasius & Ib Johannsen, 2018. "Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass in a Novel Pilot Plant with Heat Recovery and Hydraulic Oscillation," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(10), pages 1-23, October.
    8. Reddy, Harvind Kumar & Muppaneni, Tapaswy & Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan & Sudasinghe, Nilusha & Pegallapati, Ambica & Selvaratnam, Thinesh & Seger, Mark & Dungan, Barry & Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany , 2016. "Temperature effect on hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis gaditana and Chlorella sp," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 943-951.
    9. Demirbas, Ayhan, 2011. "Competitive liquid biofuels from biomass," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 17-28, January.
    10. Tzanetis, Konstantinos F. & Posada, John A. & Ramirez, Andrea, 2017. "Analysis of biomass hydrothermal liquefaction and biocrude-oil upgrading for renewable jet fuel production: The impact of reaction conditions on production costs and GHG emissions performance," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 1388-1398.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Marangon, B.B. & Castro, J.S. & Assemany, P.P. & Couto, E.A. & Calijuri, M.L., 2022. "Environmental performance of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction: Life cycle assessment and improvement insights for a sustainable renewable diesel," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 155(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ankit Mathanker & Snehlata Das & Deepak Pudasainee & Monir Khan & Amit Kumar & Rajender Gupta, 2021. "A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass for Biofuels Production with a Special Focus on the Effect of Process Parameters, Co-Solvents, and Extraction Solvents," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(16), pages 1-60, August.
    2. Alherbawi, Mohammad & Parthasarathy, Prakash & Al-Ansari, Tareq & Mackey, Hamish R. & McKay, Gordon, 2021. "Potential of drop-in biofuel production from camel manure by hydrothermal liquefaction and biocrude upgrading: A Qatar case study," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 232(C).
    3. Khoshnevisan, Benyamin & Duan, Na & Tsapekos, Panagiotis & Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar & Liu, Zhidan & Mohammadi, Ali & Angelidaki, Irini & Tsang, Daniel CW. & Zhang, Zengqiang & Pan, Junting & Ma, Lin & Ag, 2021. "A critical review on livestock manure biorefinery technologies: Sustainability, challenges, and future perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    4. Kumar, R. & Strezov, V., 2021. "Thermochemical production of bio-oil: A review of downstream processing technologies for bio-oil upgrading, production of hydrogen and high value-added products," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    5. Douwe F. A. van der Kroft & Jeroen F. J. Pruyn, 2021. "A Study into the Availability, Costs and GHG Reduction in Drop-In Biofuels for Shipping under Different Regimes between 2020 and 2050," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(17), pages 1-20, September.
    6. Daniele Castello & Thomas Helmer Pedersen & Lasse Aistrup Rosendahl, 2018. "Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass: A Critical Review," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(11), pages 1-35, November.
    7. Ramirez, Jerome A. & Brown, Richard & Rainey, Thomas J., 2018. "Techno-economic analysis of the thermal liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse in ethanol to produce liquid fuels," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 224(C), pages 184-193.
    8. Ahmad, Fiaz & Silva, Edson Luiz & Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio, 2018. "Hydrothermal processing of biomass for anaerobic digestion – A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 108-124.
    9. Je-Lueng Shie & Wei-Sheng Yang & Yi-Ru Liau & Tian-Hui Liau & Hong-Ren Yang, 2021. "Subcritical Hydrothermal Co-Liquefaction of Process Rejects at a Wastepaper-Based Paper Mill with Waste Soybean Oil," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-14, April.
    10. Chand, Rishav & Babu Borugadda, Venu & Qiu, Michael & Dalai, Ajay K., 2019. "Evaluating the potential for bio-fuel upgrading: A comprehensive analysis of bio-crude and bio-residue from hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural biomass," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 254(C).
    11. Wu, Xiao-Fei & Yin, Shuang-Shuang & Zhou, Qian & Li, Ming-Fei & Peng, Feng & Xiao, Xiao, 2019. "Subcritical liquefaction of lignocellulose for the production of bio-oils in ethanol/water system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 865-872.
    12. Kandasamy, Sabariswaran & Zhang, Bo & He, Zhixia & Chen, Haitao & Feng, Huan & Wang, Qian & Wang, Bin & Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu & Siva, Subramanian & Bhuvanendran, Narayanamoorthy & Krishnamoorthi, M., 2020. "Effect of low-temperature catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina platensis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C).
    13. Sharma, Nishesh & Jaiswal, Krishna Kumar & Kumar, Vinod & Vlaskin, Mikhail S. & Nanda, Manisha & Rautela, Indra & Tomar, Mahipal Singh & Ahmad, Waseem, 2021. "Effect of catalyst and temperature on the quality and productivity of HTL bio-oil from microalgae: A review," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 810-822.
    14. Magdeldin, Mohamed & Kohl, Thomas & Järvinen, Mika, 2017. "Techno-economic assessment of the by-products contribution from non-catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulose residues," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 679-695.
    15. Jiheon Jun & Yi-Feng Su & James R. Keiser & John E. Wade & Michael D. Kass & Jack R. Ferrell & Earl Christensen & Mariefel V. Olarte & Dino Sulejmanovic, 2022. "Corrosion Compatibility of Stainless Steels and Nickel in Pyrolysis Biomass-Derived Oil at Elevated Storage Temperatures," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(1), pages 1-16, December.
    16. Wang, H. & Bi, X. & Clift, R., 2021. "Utilization of forestry waste materials in British Columbia: Options and strategies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 150(C).
    17. Ahmad, Salman & Ouenniche, Jamal & Kolosz, Ben W. & Greening, Philip & Andresen, John M. & Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes & Xu, Bing, 2021. "A stakeholders’ participatory approach to multi-criteria assessment of sustainable aviation fuels production pathways," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 238(C).
    18. SundarRajan, P. & Gopinath, K.P. & Arun, J. & GracePavithra, K. & Adithya Joseph, A. & Manasa, S., 2021. "Insights into valuing the aqueous phase derived from hydrothermal liquefaction," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
    19. Collett, James R. & Billing, Justin M. & Meyer, Pimphan A. & Schmidt, Andrew J. & Remington, A. Brook & Hawley, Erik R. & Hofstad, Beth A. & Panisko, Ellen A. & Dai, Ziyu & Hart, Todd R. & Santosa, Da, 2019. "Renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction of oleaginous yeast and residual lignin from bioconversion of corn stover," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 233, pages 840-853.
    20. Alex R. Maag & Alex D. Paulsen & Ted J. Amundsen & Paul E. Yelvington & Geoffrey A. Tompsett & Michael T. Timko, 2018. "Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Waste Using CeZrO x," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(3), pages 1-14, March.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:189:y:2019:i:c:s0360544219319309. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.