IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jjrfmx/v14y2021i10p479-d653644.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Does Fixed Income Buffer against Fraud Shocks?

Author

Listed:
  • Steven James Lee

    (School of Business, Northcentral University, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Department of Finance, Real Estate and Law, School of Business Administration, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768, USA)

Abstract

Counterparty risk in the form of investment fraud damages a retiree’s nest egg. Does fraud negatively impact portfolios that are both stock and bond-heavy equally? This study uses Monte Carlo analysis within the Trinity Study framework to determine the average reduction in portfolio success of a retiree who experiences fraud. Findings suggest that each incidence of fraud results in a loss of three percentage points in retirement success. However, portfolios containing some bonds (75/25, 50/50, and 25/75) outperform all equity (and all bond) allocations, particularly when fraud is present. On average, each incident of fraud reduces the chance the victim will enjoy a successful retirement by nearly 3%. Various limitations, implications, and future research possibilities are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Steven James Lee, 2021. "Does Fixed Income Buffer against Fraud Shocks?," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(10), pages 1-22, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jjrfmx:v:14:y:2021:i:10:p:479-:d:653644
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1911-8074/14/10/479/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1911-8074/14/10/479/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Todd Houge & Jay Wellman, 2007. "The Use and Abuse of Mutual Fund Expenses," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 70(1), pages 23-32, January.
    2. Annamaria Lusardi & Olivia S. Mitchell, 2014. "The Economic Importance of Financial Literacy: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 52(1), pages 5-44, March.
    3. Kerry McGeary, 2009. "How do health shocks influence retirement decisions?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 307-321, September.
    4. Courtney Coile & Kevin Milligan, 2009. "How Household Portfolios Evolve After Retirement: The Effect Of Aging And Health Shocks," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 55(2), pages 226-248, June.
    5. Marina Miller & Christopher R. Tamborini & Gayle L. Reznik, 2018. "Parental retirement timing: the role of unanticipated events in the lives of adult children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 31(3), pages 747-781, July.
    6. Milton Friedman, 1957. "Introduction to "A Theory of the Consumption Function"," NBER Chapters, in: A Theory of the Consumption Function, pages 1-6, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Shiller Robert J., 2005. "Life-Cycle Portfolios as Government Policy," The Economists' Voice, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-9, August.
    8. Pfau, Wade Donald, 2011. "Getting on Track for a Sustainable Retirement: A Reality Check on Savings and Work," MPRA Paper 31900, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Jiapeng Liu & Rui Lu & Ronghua Yi & Ting Zhang, 2017. "Modelling optimal asset allocation when households experience health shocks," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 245-261, July.
    10. Michael S. Finke & John S. Howe & Sandra J. Huston, 2017. "Old Age and the Decline in Financial Literacy," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(1), pages 213-230, January.
    11. Milton Friedman, 1957. "A Theory of the Consumption Function," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie57-1, december.
    12. Jason Scott & John Watson, 2013. "The Floor-Leverage Rule for Retirement," Discussion Papers 13-013, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
    13. Min Zhang & Guangming Gong & Si Xu & Xun Gong, 2018. "Corporate Fraud and Corporate Bond Costs: Evidence from China," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(5), pages 1011-1046, April.
    14. Ann Owen & Stephen Wu, 2007. "Financial shocks and worry about the future," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 515-530, November.
    15. Olesya Baker & Phil Doctor & Eric French, 2007. "Asset rundown after retirement: the importance of rate of return shocks," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, vol. 31(Q II), pages 48-65.
    16. Pfau, Wade Donald, 2011. "Safe Savings Rates: A New Approach to Retirement Planning over the Lifecycle," MPRA Paper 28796, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Wei Sun & Anthony Webb, 2013. "Should Households Base Asset Decumulation Strategies on Required Minimum Distribution Tables?," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 38(4), pages 729-752, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Moreno-Herrero, Dolores & Salas-Velasco, Manuel & Sánchez-Campillo, José, 2018. "Factors that influence the level of financial literacy among young people: The role of parental engagement and students' experiences with money matters," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 334-351.
    2. Amitabh Chandra & Courtney Coile & Corina Mommaerts, 2020. "What Can Economics Say About Alzheimer's Disease?," NBER Working Papers 27760, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Lena Dräger & Giang Nghiem, 2021. "Are Consumers' Spending Decisions in Line with A Euler Equation?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 103(3), pages 580-596, July.
    4. Donatella Baiardi & Marco Magnani & Mario Menegatti, 2020. "The theory of precautionary saving: an overview of recent developments," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 513-542, June.
    5. Yeboah, Augustine Kwadwo & Obeng, Camara Kwasi, 2016. "Effect of financial literacy on willingness to pay for micro-insurance by commercial market business operators in Ghana," MPRA Paper 70135, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Lugilde, Alba & Bande, Roberto & Riveiro, Dolores, 2017. "Precautionary Saving: a review of the theory and the evidence," MPRA Paper 77511, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Axel Börsch-Supan & Tabea Bucher-Koenen & Michela Coppola & Bettina Lamla, 2015. "Savings In Times Of Demographic Change: Lessons From The German Experience," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 807-829, September.
    8. Wei-Yin Hu & Olivia S. Mitchell & Cynthia Pagliaro & Stephen P. Utkus, 2013. "Evaluating Web-based Savings Interventions: A Preliminary Assessment," Working Papers wp299, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
    9. Çağaçan DEĞER & Elif ERER, 2020. "Social Security Membership and Saving: The Turkish Case," Sosyoekonomi Journal, Sosyoekonomi Society, issue 28(43).
    10. Chul‐Woo Kwon & Peter F. Orazem & Daniel M. Otto, 2006. "Off‐farm labor supply responses to permanent and transitory farm income," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 34(1), pages 59-67, January.
    11. Bunting, David, 2009. "The saving decline: Macro-facts, micro-behavior," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 70(1-2), pages 282-295, May.
    12. Jonathan Gruber & Aaron Yelowitz, 1999. "Public Health Insurance and Private Savings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(6), pages 1249-1274, December.
    13. Lang, Harald, 1987. "Herman Wold on Optimal Properties of Exponentially Weighted Forecasts," Working Paper Series 179, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    14. Brautzsch, Hans-Ulrich & Günther, Jutta & Loose, Brigitte & Ludwig, Udo & Nulsch, Nicole, 2015. "Can R&D subsidies counteract the economic crisis? – Macroeconomic effects in Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 623-633.
    15. Sadullah Çelik & Yasemin Özerkek, 2008. "Panel cointegration analysis of consumer confidence and personal consumption in the European Union," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 161-168, February.
    16. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/f0uohitsgqh8dhk9814kl7606 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Alok Bhargava, 2006. "Modelling the Health of Filipino Children," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Econometrics, Statistics And Computational Approaches In Food And Health Sciences, chapter 11, pages 153-168, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    18. Iheonu O Chimere & Tochukwu Nwachukwu, 2020. "Macroeconomic determinants of household consumption in selected West African countries," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 40(2), pages 1596-1606.
    19. Klos, Alexander & Rottke, Simon, 2013. "Saving and Consumption When Children Move Out," VfS Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79786, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    20. Christian Johnson & George G Kaufman, 2007. "Un banco, con cualquier otro nombre…," Boletín, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, vol. 0(4), pages 185-199, Octubre-d.
    21. Nelson, Edward, 2017. "Reaffirming the Influence of Milton Friedman on U.K. Economic Policy," Working Papers 2017-01, University of Sydney, School of Economics, revised Feb 2017.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jjrfmx:v:14:y:2021:i:10:p:479-:d:653644. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.