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Hydrothermal Carbonization of Various Paper Mill Sludges: An Observation of Solid Fuel Properties

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  • Nepu Saha

    (Institute for Sustainable Energy and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA)

  • Akbar Saba

    (Institute for Sustainable Energy and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA)

  • Pretom Saha

    (Institute for Sustainable Energy and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA)

  • Kyle McGaughy

    (Institute for Sustainable Energy and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA)

  • Diana Franqui-Villanueva

    (USDA-PWA, ARS, WRRC, BCE, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA)

  • William J. Orts

    (USDA-PWA, ARS, WRRC, BCE, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA)

  • William M. Hart-Cooper

    (USDA-PWA, ARS, WRRC, BCE, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA)

  • M. Toufiq Reza

    (Institute for Sustainable Energy and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA)

Abstract

Each year the pulp and paper industries generate enormous amounts of effluent treatment sludge. The sludge is made up of various fractions including primary, secondary, deinked, fiber rejects sludge, etc. The goal of this study was to evaluate the fuel properties of the hydrochars produced from various types of paper mill sludges (PMS) at 180 °C, 220 °C, and 260 °C. The hydrochars, as well as the raw feedstocks, were characterized by means of ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, moisture, ash, lignin, sugar, and higher heating value (HHV daf ) measurements. Finally, combustion indices of selected hydrochars were evaluated and compared with bituminous coal. The results showed that HHV daf of hydrochar produced at 260 °C varied between 11.4 MJ/kg and 31.5 MJ/kg depending on the feedstock. This implies that the fuel application of hydrochar produced from PMS depends on the quality of feedstocks rather than the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) temperature. The combustion indices also showed that when hydrochars are co-combusted with coal, they have similar combustion indices to that of coal alone. However, based on the energy and ash contents in the produced hydrochars, Primary and Secondary Sludge (PPS 2 ) could be a viable option for co-combustion with coal in an existing coal-fired power plant.

Suggested Citation

  • Nepu Saha & Akbar Saba & Pretom Saha & Kyle McGaughy & Diana Franqui-Villanueva & William J. Orts & William M. Hart-Cooper & M. Toufiq Reza, 2019. "Hydrothermal Carbonization of Various Paper Mill Sludges: An Observation of Solid Fuel Properties," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(5), pages 1-18, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:12:y:2019:i:5:p:858-:d:211018
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Nepu Saha & Maurizio Volpe & Luca Fiori & Roberto Volpe & Antonio Messineo & M. Toufiq Reza, 2020. "Cationic Dye Adsorption on Hydrochars of Winery and Citrus Juice Industries Residues: Performance, Mechanism, and Thermodynamics," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(18), pages 1-16, September.
    2. Michela Lucian & Fabio Merzari & Michele Gubert & Antonio Messineo & Maurizio Volpe, 2021. "Industrial-Scale Hydrothermal Carbonization of Agro-Industrial Digested Sludge: Filterability Enhancement and Phosphorus Recovery," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(16), pages 1-15, August.
    3. Clara Lisseth Mendoza Martinez & Ekaterina Sermyagina & Esa Vakkilainen, 2021. "Hydrothermal Carbonization of Chemical and Biological Pulp Mill Sludges," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(18), pages 1-17, September.
    4. Tianjiao Cheng & Andante Hadi Pandyaswargo & Hiroshi Onoda, 2020. "Comparison of Torrefaction and Hydrothermal Treatment as Pretreatment Technologies for Rice Husks," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(19), pages 1-20, October.
    5. Manfredi Picciotto Maniscalco & Maurizio Volpe & Antonio Messineo, 2020. "Hydrothermal Carbonization as a Valuable Tool for Energy and Environmental Applications: A Review," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(16), pages 1-26, August.
    6. Fakudze, Sandile & Wei, Yingyuan & Shang, Qianqian & Ma, Ru & Li, Yueh-Heng & Chen, Jianqiang & Zhou, Peiguo & Han, Jiangang & Liu, Chengguo, 2021. "Single-pot upgrading of run-of-mine coal and rice straw via Taguchi-optimized hydrothermal treatment: Fuel properties and synergistic effects," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 236(C).
    7. Md Rifat Hasan & Nepu Saha & Thomas Quaid & M. Toufiq Reza, 2021. "Formation of Carbon Quantum Dots via Hydrothermal Carbonization: Investigate the Effect of Precursors," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-10, February.
    8. Shona M. Duncan & Malek Alkasrawi & Raghu Gurram & Fares Almomani & Amy E Wiberley-Bradford & Eric Singsaas, 2020. "Paper Mill Sludge as a Source of Sugars for Use in the Production of Bioethanol and Isoprene," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(18), pages 1-12, September.

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