The Bretton Woods Institutions and the Environment: Organizational Learning within the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Due to a growing public awareness, in the last 40 years environmental impacts of development projects financed and supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have come into view. Since then, the member states have pressured both organizations to implement environmental concerns. We analyze the reactions of the World Bank and the IMFâ€™s bureaucracies towards their principalsâ€™ demands. To reveal if, and to what extent, the observed reactions of both bureaucracies towards environmental integration can be assessed as organizational learning, we develop in a first step a heuristic model that allows for a distinction between different levels of learning (compliant and non-compliant, single-loop and double-loop). In a second step we describe the efforts of the bureaucracies of the World Bank (from the 1970s until today) and the IMF (from the 1990s until today) to integrate environmental protection into their activities. Due to our interest in the quality of the organizational changes, we finally analyze if and to what extent the bureaucraciesâ€™ reactions to the new external demand qualify as organizational learning. Furthermore, we discuss which factors helped or hindered organizational learning.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Tamar Gutner, 2005. "Explaining the Gaps between Mandate and Performance: Agency Theory and World Bank Environmental Reform," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 5(2), pages 10-37, 05.
- Ness, Gayl D. & Brechin, Steven R., 1988. "Bridging the gap: international organizations as organizations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(02), pages 245-273, March.
- Nils C. Bandelow, 2008. "Government Learning in German and British European Policies," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46, pages 743-764, 09.
- Michael Keen & Benjamin Jones, 2009. "Climate Policy and the Recovery," IMF Staff Position Notes 2009/28, International Monetary Fund.
- Gutner, Tamar, 2005. "World Bank Environmental Reform: Revisiting Lessons from Agency Theory," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 59(03), pages 773-783, July.
- Bernhard Ebbinghaus, 2009.
"Can Path Dependence Explain Institutional Change? Two Approaches Applied to Welfare State Reform,"
in: The Evolution of Path Dependence, chapter 8
Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Ebbinghaus, Bernhard, 2005. "Can Path Dependence Explain Institutional Change? Two Approaches Applied to Welfare State Reform," MPIfG Discussion Paper 05/2, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
- Nielson, Daniel L. & Tierney, Michael J., 2003. "Delegation to International Organizations: Agency Theory and World Bank Environmental Reform," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 57(02), pages 241-276, March.
- Ascher, William, 1983. "New development approaches and the adaptability of international agencies: the case of the World Bank," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(03), pages 415-439, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jadmsc:v:3:y:2013:i:4:p:166-201:d:29303. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.