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Mergers of publicly traded banking organizations revisited

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  • Simon H. Kwan
  • Robert A. Eisenbeis

Abstract

In more than 3,844 mergers and acquisitions between 1989 and 1999, acquiring institutions purchased more than $3 trillion in assets. A number of reasons have been advanced for such a surge in acquisitions, including the need to consolidate to achieve cost savings and operational efficiencies, to be better able to compete in the global marketplace, or to provide for the controlled exit of inefficient firms from the financial services industry. ; This article explores the question of whether the various expected performance and earning benefits of mergers are in fact realized. It adds to the limited existing research on the effects of bank mergers by analyzing consolidations between 1989 and 1996, a period of almost unprecedented banking consolidation. Specifically, examining recent data allows considering evidence of efficiency or other gains from the wave of acquisitions flowing from the erosion and final elimination of the McFadden Act. ; Consistent with the findings of earlier studies, the results point to mixed efficiency and performance effects. For example, evidence suggests that even though the better-performing institutions tended to target the higher-performing targets, the resulting mergers did not significantly improve profit performance or efficiency. In addition, the authors find only weak evidence that the market viewed acquisitions with favor. The overall conclusion is that the widely touted earnings, efficiency, and other performance and earning benefits of mergers of large banks still remain in doubt.

Suggested Citation

  • Simon H. Kwan & Robert A. Eisenbeis, 1999. "Mergers of publicly traded banking organizations revisited," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q4, pages 26-37.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedaer:y:1999:i:q4:p:26-37:n:v.84no.4
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Lublóy, Ágnes & Tóth, Eszter, 2010. "A közép-kelet-európai bankfúziók eredményessége
      [The success of the bank mergers in Central Eastern Europe]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(1), pages 37-58.
    2. H.P. Huizinga & J.H.M. Nelissen & R. Vander Vennet, 2001. "Efficiency Effects of Bank Mergers and Acquisitions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-088/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Neale Faith R. & Drake Pamela Peterson & Clark Steven P., 2010. "Diversification in the Financial Services Industry: The Effect of the Financial Modernization Act," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-30, March.
    4. Simon H. Kwan, 2004. "Banking consolidation," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue jun18.
    5. Edward J. Green & Jose A. Lopez & Zhenyu Wang, 2001. "The Federal Reserve banks' imputed cost of equity capital," Working Paper Series 2001-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    6. Robert DeYoung & Douglas Evanoff & Philip Molyneux, 2009. "Mergers and Acquisitions of Financial Institutions: A Review of the Post-2000 Literature," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 87-110, December.
    7. Randall S. Kroszner & Philip E. Strahan, 2014. "Regulation and Deregulation of the U.S. Banking Industry: Causes, Consequences, and Implications for the Future," NBER Chapters,in: Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned?, pages 485-543 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Rungporn Roengpitya, 2008. "The Effects of Financial Deregulation on Bank Governance: The Panel Data Evidence of the 1990s," Working Papers 2008-08, Monetary Policy Group, Bank of Thailand.
    9. Neale, Faith R. & Peterson, Pamela P., 2005. "The effect of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act on the insurance industry," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 317-338.
    10. John C. Soper, 2001. "Consolidation in Banking and Financial Services : The Demise of Glass-Steagall," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 16(Spring 20), pages 91-102.
    11. Roberto J. Santillán Salgado, 2011. "Banking Concentration in the European Union during the Last Fifteen Years," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 58(2), pages 245-266, June.
    12. Shih, Michael S. H., 2003. "An investigation into the use of mergers as a solution for the Asian banking sector crisis," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 31-49.
    13. Edward J. Green & Jose A. Lopez & Zhenyu Wang, 2003. "Formulating the imputed cost of equity capital for priced services at Federal Reserve banks," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 55-81.
    14. Ahmad Ismail & Ian Davidson, 2005. "Further analysis of mergers and shareholder wealth effects in European banking," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 13-30.
    15. Kevin J. Stiroh & Jennifer P. Poole, 2000. "Explaining the rising concentration of banking assets in the 1990s," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 6(Aug).

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    Keywords

    Bank mergers ; Financial institutions;

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