The Role of International Diversification in Public Pension Systems: The Case of Pakistan
Pakistan's pension system is in the process of increasing funding in anticipation of providing for a growing elderly population. The pension assets are mainly invested domestically, as only in January 2007 were regulations changed to allow the purchase of international assets. In this paper, we quantify how diversification of the pension funds to include world financial assets could help in improving the sustainability of Pakistan pensions, by simultaneously increasing expected returns and decreasing volatility. These arguments are made using historical data, and the robustness of our findings is demonstrated using a large variety of alternative assumptions about future asset returns, risks, and correlations. We find that international diversification could dramatically help to create sustainability for Pakistan's main public pension system available to private workers.
Volume (Year): 14 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (September)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Burton Street, Nottingham, NG1 4BU|
Web page: http://www.economicissues.org.uk
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Levy, Haim & Sarnat, Marshall, 1970. "International Diversification of Investment Portfolios," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(4), pages 668-75, September.
- Irfan, Mohammad, 2003.
"Poverty and social safety nets: a case study of Pakistan,"
38082, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Mohammad Irfan, 2003. "Poverty and Social Safety Nets: A Case Study of Pakistan," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2003:15, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Blake, David, 2000. "Does It Matter What Type of Pension Scheme You Have?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(461), pages F46-81, February.
- Reisen, Helmut, 1997.
"Liberalizing foreign investments by pension funds: Positive and normative aspects,"
Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1173-1182, July.
- Helmut Reisen, 1997. "Liberalising Foreign Investments by Pension Funds: Positive and Normative Aspects," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 120, OECD Publishing.
- Karen K. Lewis, 1999. "Trying to Explain Home Bias in Equities and Consumption," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(2), pages 571-608, June.
- Iglesias, Augusto & Palacios, Robert J., 2000. "Managing public pension reserves - Part I : evidence from the international experience," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 21311, The World Bank.
- Robert Holzmann & Richard Hinz, 2005. "Old Age Income Support in the 21st century: An International Perspective on Pension Systems and Reform," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7336, February.
- Bodie, Zvi & Merton, Robert C., 2002. "International pension swaps," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 77-83, March.
- Gary Burtless, 2007. "International Investment for Retirement Savers: Historical Evidence on Risk and Returns," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College wp2007-05, Center for Retirement Research, revised Feb 2007.
- Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
- Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, 03.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eis:articl:209pfau. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dan Wheatley)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.