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A virtual environment for the formulation of policy packages


  • Taeihagh, Araz
  • Bañares-Alcántara, René
  • Givoni, Moshe


The interdependence and complexity of socio-technical systems and availability of a wide variety of policy measures to address policy problems make the process of policy formulation difficult. In order to formulate sustainable and efficient transport policies, development of new tools and techniques is necessary. One of the approaches gaining ground is policy packaging, which shifts focus from implementation of individual policy measures to implementation of combinations of measures with the aim of increasing efficiency and effectiveness of policy interventions by increasing synergies and reducing potential contradictions among policy measures. In this paper, we describe the development of a virtual environment for the exploration and analysis of different configurations of policy measures in order to build policy packages. By developing systematic approaches it is possible to examine more alternatives at a greater depth, decrease the time required for the overall analysis, provide real-time assessment and feedback on the effect of changes in the configurations, and ultimately form more effective policies. The results from this research demonstrate the usefulness of computational approaches in addressing the complexity inherent in the formulation of policy packages. This new approach has been applied to the formulation of policies to advance sustainable transportation.

Suggested Citation

  • Taeihagh, Araz & Bañares-Alcántara, René & Givoni, Moshe, 2014. "A virtual environment for the formulation of policy packages," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 53-68.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:60:y:2014:i:c:p:53-68
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2013.10.017

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Araz Taeihagh & Moshe Givoni & René Bañares-Alcántara, 2013. "Which Policy First? A Network-Centric Approach for the Analysis and Ranking of Policy Measures," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 40(4), pages 595-616, August.
    2. Hickman, Robin & Ashiru, Olu & Banister, David, 2010. "Transport and climate change: Simulating the options for carbon reduction in London," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 110-125, March.
    3. Tight, Miles & Timms, Paul & Banister, David & Bowmaker, Jemma & Copas, Jonathan & Day, Andy & Drinkwater, David & Givoni, Moshe & Gühnemann, Astrid & Lawler, Mary & Macmillen, James & Miles, Andrew &, 2011. "Visions for a walking and cycling focussed urban transport system," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 1580-1589.
    4. Rietveld, Piet & Daniel, Vanessa, 2004. "Determinants of bicycle use: do municipal policies matter?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 531-550, August.
    5. May, A. D. & Roberts, M, 1995. "The design of integrated transport strategies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 97-105, April.
    6. Thomas E. McKee, 2003. "Rough sets bankruptcy prediction models versus auditor signalling rates," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(8), pages 569-586.
    7. Moshe Givoni & James Macmillen & David Banister & Eran Feitelson, 2013. "From Policy Measures to Policy Packages," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 1-20, January.
    8. Justen, Andreas & Schippl, Jens & Lenz, Barbara & Fleischer, Torsten, 2014. "Assessment of policies and detection of unintended effects: Guiding principles for the consideration of methods and tools in policy-packaging," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 19-30.
    9. Banister, David, 2008. "The sustainable mobility paradigm," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 73-80, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Volker Frehe & Frank Teuteberg, 2017. "Information and communication technology in green logistics: status quo and research gaps," Management Review Quarterly, Springer, vol. 67(2), pages 65-96, April.
    2. Yanwei Li & Araz Taeihagh & Martin De Jong, 2018. "The Governance of Risks in Ridesharing: A Revelatory Case from Singapore," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(5), pages 1-21, May.
    3. Araz Taeihagh, 2017. "Network-centric policy design," Policy Sciences, Springer;Society of Policy Sciences, vol. 50(2), pages 317-338, June.
    4. Ehud Segal & Maya Negev & Eran Feitelson & Danielle Zaychik, 2017. "Devising ‘policy packages’ for seismic retrofitting of residences," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 89(1), pages 497-519, October.
    5. Prpić, John, 2017. "Experiments on Crowdsourcing Policy Assessment," SocArXiv qznpk, Center for Open Science.
    6. Shqipe Buzuku & Andrzej Kraslawski & Javier Farfan & Kari Harmaa & Tuomo Kässi, 2019. "A Case Study of Complex Policy Design: The Systems Engineering Approach," Complexity, Hindawi, vol. 2019, pages 1-23, January.
    7. Clara Champalle & James D. Ford & Mya Sherman, 2015. "Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptations in Canadian Arctic Communities," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(7), pages 1-25, July.


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