Long-run effects of fetal influenza exposure: Evidence from Switzerland
In this paper we estimate long-run effects of fetal exposure to the 1918/19 influenza pandemic for a European country. Using data from the 1970 Swiss census, we find that the male 1919 cohort that had a strongly increased likelihood of fetal exposure to the pandemic performs significantly worse in terms of educational attainment and has a lower chance of marriage than the surrounding cohorts. Further, we find similar results when we in addition use regional differences in influenza severity to test for the impact of influenza on later-life outcomes. A set of robustness tests confirm our findings.
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Volume (Year): 74 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
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References listed on IDEAS
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- Elaine Kelly, 2009.
"The scourge of Asian Flu: in utero exposure to pandemic influenza and the development of a cohort of British children,"
IFS Working Papers
W09/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Elaine Kelly, 2011. "The Scourge of Asian Flu: In utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(4), pages 669-694.
- Douglas Almond & Bhashkar Mazumder, 2005. "The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Subsequent Health Outcomes: An Analysis of SIPP Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 258-262, May.
- Ganzeboom, H.B.G. & de Graaf, P.M. & Treiman, D.J. & de Leeuw, J., 1992. "A standard international socio-economic index of occupational status," WORC Paper 85970031-d601-46e3-befb-1, Tilburg University, Work and Organization Research Centre.
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