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Welfare state regimes and differences in self-perceived health in Europe: A multilevel analysis

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  • Eikemo, Terje Andreas
  • Bambra, Clare
  • Judge, Ken
  • Ringdal, Kristen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which welfare state regime characteristics explained the proportional variation of self-perceived health between European countries, when individual and regional variation was accounted for, by undertaking a multilevel analysis of the European Social Survey (2002 and 2004). A total of 65,065 individuals, from 218 regions and 21 countries, aged 25 years and above were included in the analysis. The health outcomes related to people's own mental and physical health, in general. The study showed that almost 90% of the variation in health was attributable to the individual-level, while approximately 10% was associated with national welfare state characteristics. The variation across regions within countries was not significant. Type of welfare state regime appeared to account for approximately half of the national-level variation of health inequalities between European countries. People in countries with Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon welfare regimes were observed to have better self-perceived general health in comparison to Southern and East European welfare regimes.

Suggested Citation

  • Eikemo, Terje Andreas & Bambra, Clare & Judge, Ken & Ringdal, Kristen, 2008. "Welfare state regimes and differences in self-perceived health in Europe: A multilevel analysis," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 66(11), pages 2281-2295, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:66:y:2008:i:11:p:2281-2295
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    Cited by:

    1. Ambugo, Eliva A., 2014. "Cross-country variation in the sociodemographic factors associated with major depressive episode in Norway, the United Kingdom, Ghana, and Kenya," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 154-160.
    2. Richardson, Elizabeth A. & Moon, Graham & Pearce, Jamie & Shortt, Niamh K. & Mitchell, Richard, 2017. "Multi-scalar influences on mortality change over time in 274 European cities," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 45-51.
    3. Beckfield, Jason & Bambra, Clare, 2016. "Shorter lives in stingier states: Social policy shortcomings help explain the US mortality disadvantage," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 30-38.
    4. Dahl, Espen & van der Wel, Kjetil A., 2013. "Educational inequalities in health in European welfare states: A social expenditure approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 60-69.
    5. MAZEIKAITE Gintare & O'DONOGHUE Cathal & SOLOGON Denisa, 2017. "Decomposing health inequality in the EU," LISER Working Paper Series 2017-02, LISER.
    6. Maskileyson, Dina, 2014. "Healthcare system and the wealth–health gradient: A comparative study of older populations in six countries," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 18-26.
    7. repec:ucm:padeur:v:30:y:2017:i:2:p:125-147 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Abdul Karim, Syahirah & Eikemo, Terje A. & Bambra, Clare, 2010. "Welfare state regimes and population health: Integrating the East Asian welfare states," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 45-53, January.
    9. Granados, José A. Tapia, 2010. "Politics and health in eight European countries: A comparative study of mortality decline under social democracies and right-wing governments," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(5), pages 841-850, September.
    10. repec:eee:socmed:v:200:y:2018:i:c:p:9-18 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:spr:ijphth:v:63:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s00038-018-1079-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Nelson, Kenneth & Fritzell, Johan, 2014. "Welfare states and population health: The role of minimum income benefits for mortality," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 63-71.
    13. Foubert, Josephine & Levecque, Katia & Van Rossem, Ronan & Romagnoli, Alessia, 2014. "Do welfare regimes influence the association between disability and self-perceived health? A multilevel analysis of 57 countries," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 10-17.
    14. Palència, Laia & Malmusi, Davide & De Moortel, Deborah & Artazcoz, Lucía & Backhans, Mona & Vanroelen, Christophe & Borrell, Carme, 2014. "The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 25-33.
    15. Burström, B. & Nylén, L. & Barr, B. & Clayton, S. & Holland, P. & Whitehead, M., 2012. "Delayed and differential effects of the economic crisis in Sweden in the 1990s on health-related exclusion from the labour market: A health equity assessment," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(12), pages 2431-2436.
    16. Campos-Matos, Inês & Kawachi, Ichiro, 2015. "Social mobility and health in European countries: Does welfare regime type matter?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 241-248.
    17. Marmor, Theodore & Wendt, Claus, 2012. "Conceptual frameworks for comparing healthcare politics and policy," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 11-20.
    18. Siegel, Martin & Vogt, Verena & Sundmacher, Leonie, 2014. "From a conservative to a liberal welfare state: Decomposing changes in income-related health inequalities in Germany, 1994–2011," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 10-19.
    19. van der Wel, Kjetil A. & Dahl, Espen & Thielen, Karsten, 2011. "Social inequalities in ‘sickness’: European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(11), pages 1608-1617.
    20. De Moortel, Deborah & Palència, Laia & Artazcoz, Lucía & Borrell, Carme & Vanroelen, Christophe, 2015. "Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in the mental well-being of employed men and women: The role of European welfare regimes," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 188-200.
    21. Hessel, Philipp, 2016. "Does retirement (really) lead to worse health among European men and women across all educational levels?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 19-26.

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