IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Scaling-up antiretroviral treatment in Southern African countries with human resource shortage: How will health systems adapt?

Listed author(s):
  • Van Damme, Wim
  • Kober, Katharina
  • Kegels, Guy
Registered author(s):

    Scaling-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) to socially meaningful levels in low-income countries with a high AIDS burden is constrained by (1) the continuously growing caseload of people to be maintained on long-term ART; (2) evident problems of shortage and skewed distribution in the health workforce; and (3) the heavy workload inherent to presently used ART delivery models. If we want to imagine how health systems can react to such challenges, we need to understand better what needs to be done regarding the different types of functions ART requires, and how these can be distributed through the care supply system, knowing that different functions rely on different rationales (professional, bureaucratic, social) for which the human input need not necessarily be found in formal healthcare supply systems. Given the present realities of an increasingly pluralistic healthcare supply and highly eclectic demand, we advance three main generic requirements for ART interventions to be successful: trustworthiness, affordability and exclusiveness - and their constituting elements. We then apply this analytic model to the baseline situation (no fundamental changes) and different scenarios. In Scenario A there are no fundamental changes, but ART gets priority status and increased resources. In Scenario B the ART scale-up strengthens the overall health system: we detail a B1 technocratic variant scenario, with profoundly re-engineered ART service production, including significant task shifting, away from classical delivery models and aimed at maximum standardisation and control of all operations; while in the B2 community-based variant scenario the typology of ART functions is maximally exploited to distribute the tasks over a human potential pool that is as wide as possible, including patients and possible communities. The latter two scenarios would entail a high degree of de-medicalisation of ART.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Social Science & Medicine.

    Volume (Year): 66 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 10 (May)
    Pages: 2108-2121

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:66:y:2008:i:10:p:2108-2121
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    Order Information: Postal:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    in new window

    1. Cohen, Desmond., 2002. "Human capital and the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa," ILO Working Papers 993581133402676, International Labour Organization.
    2. repec:ilo:ilowps:358113 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:66:y:2008:i:10:p:2108-2121. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.