Utility-driven evidence for healthy cities: Problems with evidence generation and application
The question whether the WHO Healthy Cities project 'works' has been asked ever since a number of novel ideas and actions related to community health, health promotion and healthy public policy in the mid 1980s came together in the Healthy Cities Movement initiated by the World Health Organization. The question, however, has become more urgent since we have entered an era in which the drive for 'evidence' seems all-pervasive. The article explores the nature of evidence, review available evidence on Healthy Cities accomplishments, and discusses whether enough evidence has been accumulated on different performances within the realm of Healthy Cities. A main point of reference is the European Healthy Cities Project (E-HCP). Building on the information gathered through documentary research on the topic, it is concluded that there is fair evidence that Healthy Cities works. However, the future holds great challenges for further development and evidence-oriented evaluations of Healthy Cities. There are problems with (1) the communication of evidence, (2) the tension between the original intention of the Healthy Cities Movement and its current operations, and (3) the complex nature of Healthy Cities and the methodological tools currently available.
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Volume (Year): 61 (2005)
Issue (Month): 6 (September)
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- Roberta Capello, 2000. "The City Network Paradigm: Measuring Urban Network Externalities," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 37(11), pages 1925-1945, October.
- Takano, Takehito & Fu, Jia & Nakamura, Keiko & Uji, Kazuyuki & Fukuda, Yoshiharu & Watanabe, Masafumi & Nakajima, Hiroshi, 2002. "Age-adjusted mortality and its association to variations in urban conditions in Shanghai," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 239-253, September.
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