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A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

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  • Wieczorek, Anna J.
  • Negro, Simona O.
  • Harmsen, Robert
  • Heimeriks, Gaston J.
  • Luo, Lin
  • Hekkert, Marko P.

Abstract

Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large share in future energy systems; neither does the emergent stage of development of the technology. Recent insights in innovation studies suggest that the success chances of technological innovations are, to a large extent, determined by how the surrounding system—the innovation system—is built up and how it functions. In this paper we assess the offshore wind innovation systems of four countries: Denmark, the UK, the Netherlands and Germany with the objective to provide recommendations for strengthening the overall European offshore wind innovation system. We use the Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach to analyse the system in 2011. Based on the analysis we identify a number of challenges that the European offshore wind sector faces. Some of them include: a serious deficiency of engineers; fragmented policies and poor alignment of national regulatory frameworks; cost of the technology and limited grid infrastructure. Since the problems hinder the entire system development we call for a systemic policy instrument that would support the innovation system around this technology and contribute to its wider diffusion in Europe.

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  • Wieczorek, Anna J. & Negro, Simona O. & Harmsen, Robert & Heimeriks, Gaston J. & Luo, Lin & Hekkert, Marko P., 2013. "A review of the European offshore wind innovation system," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 294-306.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:26:y:2013:i:c:p:294-306
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.045
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    2. Nasiri, Masoud & Ramazani Khorshid-Doust, Reza & Bagheri Moghaddam, Nasser, 2015. "The status of the hydrogen and fuel cell innovation system in Iran," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 775-783.
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    4. Jacobsson, Staffan & Karltorp, Kersti, 2013. "Mechanisms blocking the dynamics of the European offshore wind energy innovation system – Challenges for policy intervention," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1182-1195.
    5. Corsatea, Teodora Diana, 2014. "Increasing synergies between institutions and technology developers: Lessons from marine energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 682-696.
    6. Reichardt, Kristin & Rogge, Karoline S. & Negro, Simona O., 2017. "Unpacking policy processes for addressing systemic problems in technological innovation systems: The case of offshore wind in Germany," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1217-1226.
    7. Wanzenböck, Iris & Wesseling, Joeri & Frenken, Koen & Hekkert, Marko & Weber, Matthias, 2019. "A framework for mission-oriented innovation policy: Alternative pathways through the problem-solution space," SocArXiv njahp, Center for Open Science.
    8. Mäkitie, Tuukka & Normann, Håkon E. & Thune, Taran M. & Sraml Gonzalez, Jakoba, 2019. "The green flings: Norwegian oil and gas industry’s engagement in offshore wind power," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 269-279.
    9. van der Loos, Adriaan & Normann, Håkon E. & Hanson, Jens & Hekkert, Marko P., 2021. "The co-evolution of innovation systems and context: Offshore wind in Norway and the Netherlands," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    10. Huang, Ping & Negro, Simona O. & Hekkert, Marko P. & Bi, Kexin, 2016. "How China became a leader in solar PV: An innovation system analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 777-789.
    11. Markard, Jochen & Hoffmann, Volker H., 2016. "Analysis of complementarities: Framework and examples from the energy transition," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 63-75.
    12. Håkon Endresen Normann, 2016. "Policy networks in energy transitions: The cases of carbon capture and storage and offshore wind in Norway," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20161026, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
    13. Dedecca, João Gorenstein & Hakvoort, Rudi A. & Ortt, J. Roland, 2016. "Market strategies for offshore wind in Europe: A development and diffusion perspective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 286-296.
    14. Zou, Hongyang & Du, Huibin & Ren, Jingzheng & Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Zhang, Yongjie & Mao, Guozhu, 2017. "Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry: A critical review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 197-206.
    15. Andersen, Per Dannemand & Clausen, Niels-Erik & Cronin, Tom & Piirainen, Kalle A., 2018. "The North Sea Offshore Wind Service Industry: Status, perspectives and a joint action plan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2672-2683.
    16. Bento, Nuno & Fontes, Margarida, 2019. "Emergence of floating offshore wind energy: Technology and industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 66-82.
    17. Piirainen, Kalle A. & Tanner, Anne Nygaard & Alkærsig, Lars, 2017. "Regional foresight and dynamics of smart specialization: A typology of regional diversification patterns," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 289-300.
    18. Kristin Reichardt & Karoline S. Rogge & Simona Negro & Marko Hekkert, 2015. "Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems: the case of offshore wind in Germany," Innovation Studies Utrecht (ISU) working paper series 15-04, Utrecht University, Department of Innovation Studies, revised Aug 2015.
    19. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Enevoldsen, Peter, 2015. "One style to build them all: Corporate culture and innovation in the offshore wind industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 402-415.
    20. Zountouridou, E.I. & Kiokes, G.C. & Chakalis, S. & Georgilakis, P.S. & Hatziargyriou, N.D., 2015. "Offshore floating wind parks in the deep waters of Mediterranean Sea," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 433-448.
    21. De Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo Silva & Negro, Simona O., 2019. "Contextual structures and interaction dynamics in the Brazilian Biogas Innovation System," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 462-481.
    22. Kern, Florian & Verhees, Bram & Raven, Rob & Smith, Adrian, 2015. "Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 344-355.
    23. Akbari, Negar & Irawan, Chandra A. & Jones, Dylan F. & Menachof, David, 2017. "A multi-criteria port suitability assessment for developments in the offshore wind industry," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 102(PA), pages 118-133.

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