Putting a floor on energy savings: Comparing state energy efficiency resource standards
Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) refer to policies that require utilities and other covered entities to achieve quantitative goals for reducing energy use by a certain year. EERS policies generally apply to electricity and natural gas sales and electricity peak demand, though they also cover other energy sources in Europe. Our study aggregates information about the requirements of existing EERS policies for electricity sales in the United States. We convert quantitative goals into comparable terms to compare the nominal stringency of EERS programs across states. EERS programs also differ in their nonquantitative requirements, including flexibility measures; measurement and verification programs; and penalties and positive incentives. We compare the U.S. policies to similar policies in Europe and discuss important policy issues, including exogenous changes in fuel prices and issues with utility management of energy efficiency programs.
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- Toshi H. Arimura, Shanjun Li, Richard G. Newell, and Karen Palmer, 2012. "Cost-Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
- Arimura, Toshi H. & Newell, Richard G. & Palmer, Karen, 2009. "Cost-Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs," Discussion Papers dp-09-48, Resources For the Future.
- Toshi H. Arimura & Shanjun Li & Richard G. Newell & Karen Palmer, 2011. "Cost-Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs," NBER Working Papers 17556, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brennan, Timothy J & Palmer, Karen, 1994. "Comparing the Costs and Benefits of Diversification by Regulated Firms," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 115-36, May.
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