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Tax compliance inventory TAX-I: Designing an inventory for surveys of tax compliance

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  • Kirchler, Erich
  • Wahl, Ingrid

Abstract

Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization, theoretical background, and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess different intentions of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items eligible to differentiate between the intentions of compliance and non-compliance were collected from past research and newly developed, and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and validated on the basis of motives of compliance and non-compliance, and on the basis of behaviour in a tax experiment. A standardised inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different intentions underlying tax behaviour.

Suggested Citation

  • Kirchler, Erich & Wahl, Ingrid, 2010. "Tax compliance inventory TAX-I: Designing an inventory for surveys of tax compliance," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 331-346, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:joepsy:v:31:y:2010:i:3:p:331-346
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Batrancea Larissa-Margareta & Nichita Ramona-Anca & Bătrâncea Ioan, 2012. "Does Perceived Governmental Efficiency In Managing Tax Money Drive Compliance? Evidence From A Tax Game," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 3, pages 34-44, September.
    2. repec:eee:poleco:v:52:y:2018:i:c:p:85-102 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Korndörfer, Martin & Krumpal, Ivar & Schmukle, Stefan C., 2014. "Measuring and explaining tax evasion: Improving self-reports using the crosswise model," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 18-32.
    4. Abraham, Martin & Lorek, Kerstin & Richter, Friedemann & Wrede, Matthias, 2014. "Strictness of tax compliance norms: A factorial survey on the acceptance of inheritance tax evasion in Germany," FAU Discussion Papers in Economics 07/2014, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Economics.
    5. Kogler, Christoph & Batrancea, Larissa & Nichita, Anca & Pantya, Jozsef & Belianin, Alexis & Kirchler, Erich, 2013. "Trust and power as determinants of tax compliance: Testing the assumptions of the slippery slope framework in Austria, Hungary, Romania and Russia," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 169-180.
    6. Christoph Kogler & Stephan Muehlbacher & Erich Kirchler, 2015. "Testing the “slippery slope framework” among self-employed taxpayers," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 125-142, May.
    7. Djanali, Iwan & Sheehan-Connor, Damien, 2012. "Tax affinity hypothesis: Do we really hate paying taxes?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 758-775.
    8. Christian Vossler & Michael McKee, 2015. "Behavioral effects of tax withholding on tax compliance: Implications for information initiatives," Working Papers 15-12, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
    9. Kastlunger, Barbara & Lozza, Edoardo & Kirchler, Erich & Schabmann, Alfred, 2013. "Powerful authorities and trusting citizens: The Slippery Slope Framework and tax compliance in Italy," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 36-45.
    10. David Bruner & Michael Jones & Michael McKee & Christian Vossler, 2015. "Tax Reporting Behavior: Underreporting Opportunities and Prepopulated Tax Returns," Working Papers 15-11, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
    11. Kaplanoglou, Georgia & Rapanos, Vassilis T., 2015. "Why do people evade taxes? New experimental evidence from Greece," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 21-32.
    12. Semjén, András, 2017. "Az adózói magatartás különféle magyarázatai
      [Various explanations for tax compliance]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(2), pages 140-184.
    13. Gebhard Kirchgässner, 2011. "Tax Morale, Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Shadow Economy, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Georgia Kaplanoglou & Vassilis T. Rapanos & Nikolaos Daskalakis, 2016. "Tax compliance behaviour during the crisis: the case of Greek SMEs," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 405-444, December.
    15. Brizi, Ambra & Giacomantonio, Mauro & Schumpe, Birga M. & Mannetti, Lucia, 2015. "Intention to pay taxes or to avoid them: The impact of social value orientation," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 22-31.
    16. Gobena, Lemessa Bayissa & Van Dijke, Marius, 2016. "Power, justice, and trust: A moderated mediation analysis of tax compliance among Ethiopian business owners," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 24-37.
    17. Koessler, Ann-Kathrin & Torgler, Benno & Feld, Lars P. & Frey, Bruno S., 2018. "Commitment to pay taxes: Results from field and laboratory experiments," Freiburg Discussion Papers on Constitutional Economics 18/06, Walter Eucken Institut e.V..
    18. Kasper, Matthias & Kogler, Christoph & Kirchler, Erich, 2015. "Tax policy and the news: An empirical analysis of taxpayers’ perceptions of tax-related media coverage and its impact on tax compliance," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 58-63.
    19. Verboon, Peter & van Dijke, Marius, 2011. "When do severe sanctions enhance compliance? The role of procedural fairness," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 120-130, February.
    20. repec:eee:joepsy:v:62:y:2017:i:c:p:1-16 is not listed on IDEAS

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