Risk equalization and voluntary deductibles: A complex interaction
The presence of voluntary deductibles in the Swiss and Dutch mandatory health insurance has important implications for the respective risk equalization systems. In a theoretical analysis, we discuss the consequences of equalizing three types of expenditures: the net claims that are reimbursed by the insurer, the out-of-pocket expenditures and the expenditure savings due to moral hazard reduction. Equalizing only the net claims, as done in Switzerland, creates incentives for cream skimming and prevents insurers from incorporating out-of-pocket expenditures and moral hazard reductions into their premium structure. In an empirical analysis, we examine the effect of self-selection and conclude that the Swiss and Dutch risk equalization systems do not fully adjust for differences in health status between those who choose a deductible and those who do not. We discuss how this may lead to incentives for cream skimming and to a reduction of cross-subsidies from healthy to unhealthy individuals compared to a situation without voluntary deductibles.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Beck, Konstantin & Spycher, Stefan & Holly, Alberto & Gardiol, Lucien, 2003. "Risk adjustment in Switzerland," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 63-74, July.
- Willard G. Manning & John Mullahy, 1999.
"Estimating Log Models: To Transform or Not to Transform?,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0246, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Manning, Willard G. & Mullahy, John, 2001. "Estimating log models: to transform or not to transform?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 461-494, July.
- Duan, Naihua, et al, 1983. "A Comparison of Alternative Models for the Demand for Medical Care," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 1(2), pages 115-26, April.
- Manning, Willard G, et al, 1987. "Health Insurance and the Demand for Medical Care: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 251-77, June.
- Keeler, Emmett B. & Rolph, John E., 1988. "The demand for episodes of treatment in the health insurance experiment," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 337-367, December.
- Lamers, Leida M., 1998. "Risk-adjusted capitation payments: Developing a diagnostic cost groups classification for the Dutch situation," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 15-32, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:27:y:2008:i:2:p:427-443. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.