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Why are European IPOs so rarely priced outside the indicative price range?

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  • Jenkinson, Tim
  • Morrison, Alan D.
  • Wilhelm, William Jr.

Abstract

In contrast to practice in the U.S., European IPOs are very rarely priced outside the indicative price range, and frequently are priced at its upper bound. We develop a model that provides a rationale for this seemingly inefficient pricing behaviour. The model allows for the practice, observed in Europe but not in the U.S., whereby underwriters obtain information from investors prior to establishing the indicative price range. With this alternative staging of the information game, first studied by Benveniste and Spindt (1989), a commitment to not exceeding the upper bound is necessary to extract private information from investors. The model has important implications for empirical research based on European primary market data.
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  • Jenkinson, Tim & Morrison, Alan D. & Wilhelm, William Jr., 2006. "Why are European IPOs so rarely priced outside the indicative price range?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 185-209, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:80:y:2006:i:1:p:185-209
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Tinic, Seha M, 1988. " Anatomy of Initial Public Offerings of Common Stock," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(4), pages 789-822, September.
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    8. Tim Jenkinson & Howard Jones, 2004. "Bids and Allocations in European IPO Bookbuilding," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2309-2338, October.
    9. Jay R. Ritter, 2003. "Differences between European and American IPO Markets," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 9(4), pages 421-434.
    10. Chowdhry, Bhagwan & Sherman, Ann, 1996. "International differences in oversubscription and underpricing of IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 359-381, July.
    11. Loffler, Gunter & Panther, Patrick F. & Theissen, Erik, 2005. "Who knows what when? The information content of pre-IPO market prices," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 466-484, October.
    12. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
    13. Francesca Cornelli & David Goldreich, 2003. "Bookbuilding: How Informative Is the Order Book?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1415-1443, August.
    14. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss, 1993. "The underpricing of initial public offerings and the partial adjustment phenomenon," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 231-250, October.
    15. Alexander P. Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William J. Wilhelm, Jr., 2003. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 63-99.
    16. Francesca Cornelli, 2001. "Bookbuilding and Strategic Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2337-2369, December.
    17. Sherman, Ann E, 2000. "IPOs and Long-Term Relationships: An Advantage of Book Building," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 697-714.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sherman, Ann E., 2005. "Global trends in IPO methods: Book building versus auctions with endogenous entry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 615-649, December.
    2. Cai, Kelly Nianyun & Lee, Hei Wai & Valero, Magali, 2010. "Changing underwriting practices on underpricing of U.S. global initial public offerings," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(12), pages 1317-1323, December.
    3. Aussenegg, Wolfgang & Pichler, Pegaret & Stomper, Alex, 2006. "IPO Pricing with Bookbuilding and a When-Issued Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(04), pages 829-862, December.
    4. Loffler, Gunter & Panther, Patrick F. & Theissen, Erik, 2005. "Who knows what when? The information content of pre-IPO market prices," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 466-484, October.
    5. Chang, Hsiu-Hua & Chen, Anlin & Kao, Lanfeng & Wu, Chin-Shun, 2014. "IPO price discovery efficiency under alternative regulatory constraints: Taiwan, Hong Kong and the U.S," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 83-96.
    6. Jiang, Li & Li, Gao, 2013. "Investor sentiment and IPO pricing during pre-market and aftermarket periods: Evidence from Hong Kong," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 65-82.
    7. McGuinness, Paul B., 2016. "Voluntary profit forecast disclosures, IPO pricing revisions and after-market earnings drift," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 70-83.
    8. Guldiken, Orhun & Tupper, Christina & Nair, Anil & Yu, Huizhi, 2017. "The impact of media coverage on IPO stock performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 24-32.
    9. Bertoni, Fabio & Giudici, Giancarlo, 2014. "The strategic reallocation of IPO shares," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 211-222.
    10. Paul B. McGuinness, 2016. "Post-IPO performance and its association with subscription cascades and issuers’ strategic-political importance," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 291-333, February.
    11. Kenji Kutsuna & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 2009. "Public Information, IPO Price Formation, and Long-Run Returns: Japanese Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 505-546, February.
    12. McGuinness, Paul B., 2014. "IPO firm value and its connection with cornerstone and wider signalling effects," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 138-162.
    13. Boreiko, Dmitri & Lombardo, Stefano, 2011. "Italian IPOs: Allocations and claw back clauses," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 127-143, February.
    14. Ravi Jagannathan & Ann E. Sherman, 2006. "Why Do IPO Auctions Fail?," NBER Working Papers 12151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Leite, Tore, 2006. "Bookbuilding with heterogeneous investors," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 235-253, April.
    16. How, Janice & Lam, Jennifer & Yeo, Julian, 2007. "The use of the comparable firm approach in valuing Australian IPOs," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 99-115.
    17. Elston, Julie Ann & Yang, J. Jimmy, 2010. "Venture capital, ownership structure, accounting standards and IPO underpricing: Evidence from Germany," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(6), pages 517-536, November.
    18. repec:kap:decono:v:165:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10645-017-9302-y is not listed on IDEAS

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