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Unethical behavior in the field: Demographic characteristics and beliefs of the cheater

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  • Bucciol, Alessandro
  • Landini, Fabio
  • Piovesan, Marco

Abstract

What are the individual demographic characteristics that correlate with unethical behavior? To answer this question we randomly interviewed 541 passengers who used the bus in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Exploiting the high level of fare evasion (43% without a valid ticket) we find that young individuals, males and non-European immigrants in our sample are more likely to travel without a ticket. Interestingly, traveling with other people correlates with the probability of holding a valid ticket but its effect depends on who the passenger and the others are. Finally, we find that all passengers’ beliefs on fine costs, ticket inspection frequency, and percentage of passengers without a ticket are surprisingly close to actual figures. However, cheaters perceive inspections as more frequent than those traveling with a valid ticket.

Suggested Citation

  • Bucciol, Alessandro & Landini, Fabio & Piovesan, Marco, 2013. "Unethical behavior in the field: Demographic characteristics and beliefs of the cheater," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 248-257.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:93:y:2013:i:c:p:248-257
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2013.03.018
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Houser & John List & Marco Piovesan & Anya Samek & Joachim Winter, 2015. "On the Origins of Dishonesty: from Parents to Children," Artefactual Field Experiments 00449, The Field Experiments Website.
    2. Zhixin Dai & Fabio Galeotti & Marie Claire Villeval, 2017. "The efficiency of crackdowns: a lab-in-the-field experiment in public transportations," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 82(2), pages 249-271, February.
    3. Houser, Daniel & List, John A. & Piovesan, Marco & Samek, Anya & Winter, Joachim, 2016. "Dishonesty: From parents to children," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 242-254.
    4. Grosch, Kerstin & Rau, Holger A., 2016. "Gender Differences in Compliance: The Role of Social Value Orientation," Discussion Papers 245702, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    5. Grosch, Kerstin & Rau, Holger, 2017. "Gender differences in honesty: The role of social value orientation," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 308, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    6. Zhixin Dai & Fabio Galeotti & Marie Claire Villeval, 2016. "Cheating in the Lab Predicts Fraud in the Field An Experiment in Public Transportations," Working Papers halshs-01265696, HAL.
    7. Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela & Lergetporer, Philipp, 2015. "Lying and age: An experimental study," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 12-25.
    8. Ritwik Banerjee, 2016. "On the interpretation of bribery in a laboratory corruption game: moral frames and social norms," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 19(1), pages 240-267, March.
    9. Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt & Hansen, Lars Gaarn & Piovesan, Marco, 2013. "Separating Will from Grace: An experiment on conformity and awareness in cheating," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 279-284.
    10. Barabino, Benedetto & Salis, Sara & Useli, Bruno, 2015. "What are the determinants in making people free riders in proof-of-payment transit systems? Evidence from Italy," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 184-196.
    11. Nives Della Valle & Matteo Ploner, 2017. "Reacting to Unfairness: Group Identity and Dishonest Behavior," Games, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-19, July.
    12. Guarda, Pablo & Galilea, Patricia & Paget-Seekins, Laurel & Ortúzar, Juan de Dios, 2016. "What is behind fare evasion in urban bus systems? An econometric approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 55-71.
    13. Susanne Braun & Lars Hornuf, 2015. "Leadership and persistency in spontaneuous dishonesty," IAAEU Discussion Papers 201510, Institute of Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the European Union (IAAEU).
    14. Abeler, Johannes & Becker, Anke & Falk, Armin, 2014. "Representative evidence on lying costs," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 96-104.
    15. Guarda, Pablo & Galilea, Patricia & Handy, Susan & Muñoz, Juan Carlos & Ortúzar, Juan de Dios, 2016. "Decreasing fare evasion without fines? A microeconomic analysis," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 151-158.
    16. Delbosc, Alexa & Currie, Graham, 2016. "Cluster analysis of fare evasion behaviours in Melbourne, Australia," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 29-36.
    17. Gilles Grolleau & Martin G. Kocher & Angela Sutan, 2016. "Cheating and Loss Aversion: Do People Cheat More to Avoid a Loss?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 62(12), pages 3428-3438, December.
    18. Alem, Yonas & Eggert, Håkan & Kocher, Martin G. & Ruhinduka, Remidius D., 2016. "Why (field) experiments on unethical behavior are important:Comparing stated and revealed behavior," Working Papers in Economics 664, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    19. Azar, Ofer H. & Yosef, Shira & Bar-Eli, Michael, 2013. "Do customers return excessive change in a restaurant?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 219-226.
    20. Chung, Yi-Shih & Chiou, Yu-Chiun, 2017. "Willingness-to-pay for a bus fare reform: A contingent valuation approach with multiple bound dichotomous choices," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 289-304.
    21. repec:eee:transa:v:100:y:2017:i:c:p:311-318 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cheating; Fare evasion; Individual characteristics; Unethical behavior;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty

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