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“In-group love and out-group hate?” A cross cultural study on customers' revenge, avoidance and forgiveness behaviors


  • Zourrig, Haithem
  • Chebat, Jean-Charles
  • Toffoli, Roy


Based on Allport (1954) paradigm of “in-group love and out-group hate”, this research posits that interpersonal conflicts are more likely to be pursued when allocentric customers are faced with an out-group service employee, leading to a confrontational response such as revenge. However, if the service employee is from the in-group, the allocentrism trait tends to weigh against the pursuit of any conflict and therefore may increase the tendency of forgiveness or at least avoidance. Conversely, idiocentric customers are more likely to engage in confrontational tactics regardless the group affiliation of the service employee, given that idiocentrics make little distinction between in-group and out-group members.

Suggested Citation

  • Zourrig, Haithem & Chebat, Jean-Charles & Toffoli, Roy, 2015. "“In-group love and out-group hate?” A cross cultural study on customers' revenge, avoidance and forgiveness behaviors," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 487-499.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:68:y:2015:i:3:p:487-499
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.09.014

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. He, Yi & Chen, Qimei & Alden, Dana L., 2012. "Consumption in the public eye: The influence of social presence on service experience," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 302-310.
    2. Zourrig, Haithem & Chebat, Jean-Charles & Toffoli, Roy, 2009. "Consumer revenge behavior: A cross-cultural perspective," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(10), pages 995-1001, October.
    3. Folkes, Valerie S, 1984. "Consumer Reactions to Product Failure: An Attributional Approach," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 398-409, March.
    4. R. Barry Ruback & Purnima Singh, 2007. "Ingroup Bias, Intergroup Contact and the Attribution of Blame for Riots," Psychology and Developing Societies, , vol. 19(2), pages 249-265, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Birau, Mia M. & Faure, Corinne, 2018. "It is easy to do the right thing: Avoiding the backfiring effects of advertisements that blame consumers for waste," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 102-117.
    2. Casidy, Riza & Shin, Hyunju, 2015. "The effects of harm directions and service recovery strategies on customer forgiveness and negative word-of-mouth intentions," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 103-112.
    3. Harrison-Walker, L. Jean, 2019. "The critical role of customer forgiveness in successful service recovery," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 376-391.
    4. Gaucher, Benoît & Chebat, Jean-Charles, 2019. "How uncivil customers corrode the relationship between frontline employees and retailers," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-10.


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