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Price dispersion in OTC markets: A new measure of liquidity

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  • Jankowitsch, Rainer
  • Nashikkar, Amrut
  • Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

Abstract

In this paper, we model price dispersion effects in over-the-counter (OTC) markets to show that, in the presence of inventory risk for dealers and search costs for investors, traded prices may deviate from the expected market valuation of an asset. We interpret this deviation as a liquidity effect and develop a new liquidity measure quantifying the price dispersion in the context of the US corporate bond market. This market offers a unique opportunity to study liquidity effects since, from October 2004 onwards, all OTC transactions in this market have to be reported to a common database known as the Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (TRACE). Furthermore, market-wide average price quotes are available from Markit Group Limited, a financial information provider. Thus, it is possible, for the first time, to directly observe deviations between transaction prices and the expected market valuation of securities. We quantify and analyze our new liquidity measure for this market and find significant price dispersion effects that cannot be simply captured by bid-ask spreads. We show that our new measure is indeed related to liquidity by regressing it on commonly-used liquidity proxies and find a strong relation between our proposed liquidity measure and bond characteristics, as well as trading activity variables. Furthermore, we evaluate the reliability of end-of-day marks that traders use to value their positions. Our evidence suggests that the price deviations from expected market valuations are significantly larger and more volatile than previously assumed. Overall, the results presented here improve our understanding of the drivers of liquidity and are important for many applications in OTC markets, in general.

Suggested Citation

  • Jankowitsch, Rainer & Nashikkar, Amrut & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 2011. "Price dispersion in OTC markets: A new measure of liquidity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 343-357, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:35:y:2011:i:2:p:343-357
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    Cited by:

    1. Kalimipalli, Madhu & Nayak, Subhankar & Perez, M. Fabricio, 2013. "Dynamic effects of idiosyncratic volatility and liquidity on corporate bond spreads," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2969-2990.
    2. Loon, Yee Cheng & Zhong, Zhaodong (Ken), 2016. "Does Dodd-Frank affect OTC transaction costs and liquidity? Evidence from real-time CDS trade reports," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(3), pages 645-672.
    3. Loon, Yee Cheng & Zhong, Zhaodong Ken, 2014. "The impact of central clearing on counterparty risk, liquidity, and trading: Evidence from the credit default swap market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 91-115.
    4. Julien HUGONNIER & Benjamin LESTER & Pierre-Olivier WEILL, "undated". "Heterogeneity in Decentralized Asset Markets," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 14-67, Swiss Finance Institute.
    5. Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Yan, Hong, 2017. "Understanding transactions prices in the credit default swaps market," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-27.
    6. Jankowitsch, Rainer & Nagler, Florian & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 2014. "The determinants of recovery rates in the US corporate bond market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 155-177.
    7. Friewald, Nils & Jankowitsch, Rainer & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 2012. "Illiquidity or credit deterioration: A study of liquidity in the US corporate bond market during financial crises," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 18-36.
    8. Benos, Evangelos & Payne, Richard & Vasios, Michalis, 2016. "Centralized trading, transparency and interest rate swap market liquidity: evidence from the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act," Bank of England working papers 580, Bank of England.
    9. Olga Cielinska & Andreas Joseph & Ujwal Shreyas & John Tanner & Michalis Vasios, 2017. "Gauging market dynamics using trade repository data: The case of the Swiss franc de-pegging," IFC Bulletins chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Statistical implications of the new financial landscape, volume 43 Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Craig W. Holden & Stacey Jacobsen & Avanidhar Subrahmanyam, 2014. "The Empirical Analysis of Liquidity," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 8(4), pages 263-365, December.
    11. repec:eee:finmar:v:33:y:2017:i:c:p:42-74 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. repec:eee:ecolet:v:161:y:2017:i:c:p:10-14 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Lischewski, Judith & Voronkova, Svitlana, 2012. "Size, value and liquidity. Do They Really Matter on an Emerging Stock Market?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 8-25.
    14. Pelizzon, Loriana & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tomio, Davide & Uno, Jun, 2015. "Sovereign credit risk, liquidity, and ECB intervention: Deus ex machina?," SAFE Working Paper Series 95, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    15. Lam, Keith S.K. & Tam, Lewis H.K., 2011. "Liquidity and asset pricing: Evidence from the Hong Kong stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2217-2230, September.
    16. Mayordomo, Sergio & Posch, Peter N., 2016. "Does central clearing benefit risky dealers?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 91-100.
    17. Bethke, Sebastian & Gehde-Trapp, Monika & Kempf, Alexander, 2014. "Investor sentiment, flight-to-quality, and corporate bond comovement," CFR Working Papers 13-06 [rev.2], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    18. Shen, Ji & Wei, Bin & Yan, Hongjun, 2016. "Financial Intermediation Chains in an OTC Market," MPRA Paper 74925, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Pelizzon, Loriana & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tomio, Davide & Uno, Jun, 2016. "Sovereign credit risk, liquidity, and European Central Bank intervention: Deus ex machina?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 86-115.
    20. Filip Zikes, 2017. "Measuring Transaction Costs in the Absence of Timestamps," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2017-045, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    21. repec:eee:jbfina:v:82:y:2017:i:c:p:112-132 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. repec:eee:jimfin:v:84:y:2018:i:c:p:1-22 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Bethke, Sebastian & Gehde-Trapp, Monika & Kempf, Alexander, 2015. "Investor sentiment, flight-to-quality, and corporate bond comovement," CFR Working Papers 13-06 [rev.3], University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).

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