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Financial amplification mechanisms and the Federal Reserve's supply of liquidity during the crisis

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  • Asani Sarkar
  • Jeffrey Shrader

Abstract

The small decline in the value of mortgage-related assets relative to the large total losses associated with the financial crisis suggests the presence of financial amplification mechanisms, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the financial system. We review the literature on financial amplification mechanisms and discuss the Federal Reserve's interventions during different stages of the crisis in light of this literature. We interpret the Fed's early-stage liquidity programs as working to dampen balance sheet amplifications arising from the positive feedback between financial constraints and asset prices. By comparison, the Fed's later-stage crisis programs take into account adverse-selection amplifications that operate via increases in credit risk and the externality imposed by risky borrowers on safe ones. Finally, we provide new empirical evidence that increases in the Federal Reserve's liquidity supply reduce interest rates during periods of high liquidity risk. Our analysis has implications for the impact on market prices of a potential withdrawal of liquidity supply by the Fed.

Suggested Citation

  • Asani Sarkar & Jeffrey Shrader, 2010. "Financial amplification mechanisms and the Federal Reserve's supply of liquidity during the crisis," Staff Reports 431, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:431
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nobuhiro Kiyotaki & Gauti Eggertsson & Andrea Ferrero & Marco Del Negro, 2010. "The Great Escape? A Quantitative Evaluation of the Fed’s Non-Standard Policies," 2010 Meeting Papers 113, Society for Economic Dynamics.
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    Cited by:

    1. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2011. "Over the Cliff: From the Subprime to the Global Financial Crisis," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 49-70, Winter.
    2. Cúrdia, Vasco & Woodford, Michael, 2011. "The central-bank balance sheet as an instrument of monetarypolicy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 54-79, January.
    3. Philippe Gilles, 2013. "Guest Editor Introduction: European Debt Crisis," The Journal of European Theoretical and Applied Studies, The Center for European Studies at Kirklareli University - Turkey, vol. 1(1), pages 1-10.
    4. Schabert, Andreas, 2015. "Optimal central bank lending," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 485-516.
    5. Scott Brave & Hesna Genay, 2011. "Federal Reserve policies and financial market conditions during the crisis," Proceedings 1129, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    6. Marco Di Maggio & Amir Kermani & Christopher Palmer, 2016. "How Quantitative Easing Works: Evidence on the Refinancing Channel," NBER Working Papers 22638, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Lukasz Goczek, 2011. "Federal Policy Responses To The 2007-2009 Credit Crunch In The Us," Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, Institute of Economic Research, vol. 6(3), pages 27-42, September.
    8. Kirill Shakhnov & Nicola Borri, 2017. "Limited Arbitrage in the Market for Local Currency Emerging Market Debt," 2017 Meeting Papers 737, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    9. Jacobson, Margaret M. & Tallman, Ellis W., 2015. "Liquidity provision during the crisis of 1914: Private and public sources," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 22-34.
    10. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2011. "Monetary Policy Strategy: Lessons from the Crisis," NBER Working Papers 16755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Cécile Bastidon & Philippe Gilles & Nicolas Huchet, 2012. "Chocs de Spread, liquidité du marché interbancaire et politique monétaire," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 55(4), pages 409-426.
    12. Jankowitsch, Rainer & Nashikkar, Amrut & Subrahmanyam, Marti G., 2011. "Price dispersion in OTC markets: A new measure of liquidity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 343-357, February.
    13. Cécile Bastidon & Philippe Gilles & Nicolas Huchet, 2016. "The ECB, Between Conservatism and Pragmatism," Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice, Central bank of Montenegro, pages 25-52.
    14. Nerina Reyna & Carlos F. Suárez Dóriga & Matías Vicens, 2011. "Monetary Policy of Main Central Banks During the 2007-2011 Crisis," Ensayos Económicos, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department, vol. 1(61-62), pages 189-249, January -.
    15. Stefano Puddu & Andreas Waelchli, 2015. "TAF Effect on Liquidity Risk Exposure," IRENE Working Papers 15-07, IRENE Institute of Economic Research.
    16. Markus Hoermann & Andreas Schabert, 2011. "When is Quantitative Easing effective?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-001/2/DSF 6, Tinbergen Institute.

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    Keywords

    Assets (Accounting) ; Bank assets ; Interest rates ; Bank liquidity ; Financial crises ; Federal Reserve System;

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