Pricing in the shadow of firm turnover: ISPs during the 1990s
We examine the relationship between changes in price levels and the evolution of the market for dial-up ISPs in the United States from November 1993 to January 1999. This was a period of much entry and exit and new product introduction. We show that new firms enter the market at a small but significant price discount to established incumbents. At the same time, introduction of new products/technologies is priced at a significant price premium to the existing offerings, but the premium declines rapidly. We also find a survivor bias in pricing: ISPs who survive tend to have higher prices than younger firms. This bias interacts with the evolution of the market. Lastly, we find comparatively little role for exit.
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