Representing and reasoning with games becomes difficult once they involve large numbers of actions and players, because the space requirement for utility functions can grow unmanageably. Action-Graph Games (AGGs) are a fully-expressive game representation that can compactly express utility functions with structure such as context-specific independence, anonymity, and additivity. We show that AGGs can be used to compactly represent all games that are compact when represented as graphical games, symmetric games, anonymous games, congestion games, and polymatrix games, as well as games that require exponential space under all of these existing representations. We give a polynomial-time algorithm for computing a player's expected utility under an arbitrary mixed-strategy profile, and show how to use this algorithm to achieve exponential speedups of existing methods for computing sample Nash equilibria. We present results of experiments showing that using AGGs leads to a dramatic increase in the size of games accessible to computational analysis.2
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- Govindan, Srihari & Wilson, Robert, 2004. "Computing Nash equilibria by iterated polymatrix approximation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1229-1241, April.
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- Milchtaich, Igal, 1996. "Congestion Games with Player-Specific Payoff Functions," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 111-124, March.
- Conitzer, Vincent & Sandholm, Tuomas, 2008. "New complexity results about Nash equilibria," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 621-641, July.
- Govindan, Srihari & Wilson, Robert, 2003. "A global Newton method to compute Nash equilibria," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 110(1), pages 65-86, May.
- Monderer, Dov & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1996. "Potential Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 124-143, May.
- Turocy, Theodore L., 2005. "A dynamic homotopy interpretation of the logistic quantal response equilibrium correspondence," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 243-263, May.
- Herbert E. Scarf, 1967. "The Approximation of Fixed Points of a Continuous Mapping," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 216R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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