IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Factors affecting rural development in turkey: BartIn case study


  • YIlmaz, Bülent
  • Dasdemir, Ismet
  • Atmis, Erdogan
  • Lise, Wietze


The aim of this study is to establish the most important factors affecting rural development in Turkey by means of a multi-dimensional approach and to achieve realistic and practical rural development strategies using these factors. For this purpose, a total of 96 villages are selected fully covering two counties in the BartIn province located in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey, which is among the provinces with the lowest per capita income and the highest share of village population. 36 variables which characterise the level of development in villages are developed. These variables are measuring environmental, economic and socio-cultural dimensions and the relationships among them. Principal component and regression analyses are applied determining that there are 12 factors affecting development of the villages. These are (1) geographical location, (2) size of a village, (3) productivity of land, (4) type of land use, (5) active population, (6) poplar production areas, (7) proximity to a river, (8) housing comfort, (9) characteristics of drinking water, (10) productive fruit areas, (11) cooperativization and (12) social infrastructure investments. Based on these 12 factors, a development index (DI) is developed consisting of the 12 variables with the highest factor loading in each derived factor. Villages are divided into three groups based on (1) the DI values and (2) 36 variables used in a discriminant analysis, showing that the proposed DI is a reliable index to measure variation in development. According to these results, development strategies for each village group are put forth. Subsequently, the methodology developed in this paper can be used to monitor village development and to assist in effective use of resources for sustainable forestry and development in Turkey.

Suggested Citation

  • YIlmaz, Bülent & Dasdemir, Ismet & Atmis, Erdogan & Lise, Wietze, 2010. "Factors affecting rural development in turkey: BartIn case study," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 239-249, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:forpol:v:12:y:2010:i:4:p:239-249

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Philip Mikos, 2001. "The European Commission Perspective on Rural Development: Integrating New Trends into Multi‐sectoral Approaches," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 19(4), pages 545-552, December.
    2. Atmis, Erdogan & Günsen, H. Batuhan & Lise, Banu Bayramoglu & Lise, Wietze, 2009. "Factors affecting forest cooperative's participation in forestry in Turkey," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 102-108, March.
    3. Rizov, Marian, 2005. "Rural development under the European CAP: The role of diversity," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 621-628.
    4. Caroline Ashley & Simon Maxwell, 2001. "Rethinking Rural Development," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 19(4), pages 395-425, December.
    5. Atmis, Erdogan & Dasdemir, Ismet & Lise, Wietze & Yildiran, Omur, 2007. "Factors affecting women's participation in forestry in Turkey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(4), pages 787-796, February.
    6. Elands, Birgit H. M. & Wiersum, K. Freerk, 2001. "Forestry and rural development in Europe: an exploration of socio-political discourses," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 5-16, September.
    7. Sanderson, Steven, 2005. "Poverty and Conservation: The New Century's "Peasant Question?"," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 323-332, February.
    8. Narain, Urvashi & Gupta, Shreekant & van 't Veld, Klaas, 2008. "Poverty and resource dependence in rural India," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 161-176, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Jing Li & Meng Guo & Kevin Lo, 2019. "Estimating Housing Vacancy Rates in Rural China Using Power Consumption Data," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(20), pages 1-13, October.
    2. Dessy Rachmawatie & Ernan Rustiadi & Akhmad Fauzi & Bambang Juanda, 2021. "Driving Factors of Community Empowerment and Development through Renewable Energy for Electricity in Indonesia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(1), pages 326-332.
    3. Jakub Straka & Marcela Tuzová, 2016. "Factors Affecting Development of Rural Areas in the Czech Republic: a Literature Review," Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, Mendel University Press, vol. 64(6), pages 2141-2150.
    4. Guogang Wang & Mingli Wang & Jimin Wang & Chun Yang, 2015. "Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 7(2), pages 1-16, January.
    5. Atilla Atik & Fürüzan Aslan, 2015. "The Effect of Plantation Site Conditions on Adaptive Capability and Growth Performance of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus Libani A. Rich.) Seedlings," Energy & Environment, , vol. 26(3), pages 369-389, April.
    6. Incham Manggat & Rajwani Zain & Zakiyah Jamaluddin, 2018. "The Impact of Infrastructure Development on Rural Communities: A Literature Review," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 8(1), pages 647-658, January.
    7. Marcin Surówka & Łukasz Popławski & Helena Fidlerová, 2021. "Technical Infrastructure as an Element of Sustainable Development of Rural Regions in Małopolskie Voivodeship in Poland and Trnava Region in Slovakia," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 11(2), pages 1-23, February.
    8. Rongtian Zhang & Xiaolin Zhang, 2023. "Spatial Pattern Evolution and Driving Mechanism of Rural Settlements in Rapidly Urbanized Areas: A Case Study of Jiangning District in Nanjing City, China," Land, MDPI, vol. 12(4), pages 1-17, March.
    9. Rongtian Zhang & Xiaolin Zhang, 2022. "Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Rural Settlements in Metropolitan Fringe Area: A Case Study of Nanjing, China," Land, MDPI, vol. 11(11), pages 1-18, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mudaca, Joao Daniel & Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki & Yamada, Masaaki & Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw, 2015. "Household participation in Payments for Ecosystem Services: A case study from Mozambique," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 21-27.
    2. Coulibaly-Lingani, Pascaline & Savadogo, Patrice & Tigabu, Mulualem & Oden, Per-Christer, 2011. "Factors influencing people's participation in the forest management program in Burkina Faso, West Africa," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 292-302, April.
    3. Imen Turki Abdelhedi & Sonia Zouari Zouari, 2020. "Agriculture and Food Security in North Africa: a Theoretical and Empirical Approach," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 11(1), pages 193-210, March.
    4. Valentinov, Vladislav, 2012. "Understanding the rural third sector: insights from Veblen and Bogdanov," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 177-188.
    5. Nilsson, Jerker & Helgesson, Matilda & Rommel, Jens & Svensson, Ellinor, 2020. "Forest-owner support for their cooperative's provision of public goods," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    6. Porro, Roberto & Lopez-Feldman, Alejandro & Vela-Alvarado, Jorge W., 2015. "Forest use and agriculture in Ucayali, Peru: Livelihood strategies, poverty and wealth in an Amazon frontier," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 47-56.
    7. Mårtensson, K., 2012. "Urban dimensions within rural territories: gender dynamics in the labor market in O’Higgins, Chile," Working papers 106, Rimisp Latin American Center for Rural Development.
    8. Kemkes, Robin J., 2015. "The role of natural capital in sustaining livelihoods in remote mountainous regions: The case of Upper Svaneti, Republic of Georgia," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 22-31.
    9. Fan, Shenggen & Johnson, Michael E. & Saurkar, Anuja & Makombe, Tsitsi, 2007. "Investing in African agriculture to halve poverty by 2015," ReSAKSS issue notes 4, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Scott, Lucy, 2014. "Transfers for extreme poverty reduction: Implications for patron-client relationships in the context of Bangladesh's agricultural reformation," WIDER Working Paper Series 029, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Tony Gore & Ryan Powell & Peter Wells, 2006. "The contribution of rural community businesses to integrated rural development: “Local services for local people”," Post-Print hal-01201127, HAL.
    12. Nakakaawa, Charlotte & Moll, Ricarda & Vedeld, Paul & Sjaastad, Espen & Cavanagh, Joseph, 2015. "Collaborative resource management and rural livelihoods around protected areas: A case study of Mount Elgon National Park, Uganda," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1-11.
    13. Hoogstra, Marjanke A. & Schanz, Heiner & Freerk Wiersum, K., 2004. "The future of European forestry--between urbanization and rural development," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(5), pages 441-445, August.
    14. Wassie, Yibeltal T. & Rannestad, Meley M. & Adaramola, Muyiwa S., 2021. "Determinants of household energy choices in rural sub-Saharan Africa: An example from southern Ethiopia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 221(C).
    15. Scheidel, Arnim, 2013. "Flows, funds and the complexity of deprivation: Using concepts from ecological economics for the study of poverty," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 28-36.
    16. Rizov, Marian & Davidova, Sophia & Bailey, Alastair, 2019. "Employment effects of CAP payments in the UK non-farm economy," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 147-161.
    17. Haftu Etsay & Shunji Oniki & Melaku Berhe & Teklay Negash, 2022. "The Watershed Communal Land Management and Livelihood of Rural Households in Kilte Awlaelo Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(20), pages 1-19, October.
    18. Katarina Haugen, 2016. "Contested Lands? Dissonance and Common Ground in Stakeholder Views on Forest Values," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 107(4), pages 421-434, September.
    19. Gareth A. Jones & Stuart Corbridge, 2010. "The continuing debate about urban bias," Progress in Development Studies, , vol. 10(1), pages 1-18, January.
    20. Đorđević Dejan Ž. & Šušić Vukašin & Janjić Ivana, 2019. "Perspectives of Development of Rural Tourism of the Republic of Serbia," Economic Themes, Sciendo, vol. 57(2), pages 219-232, June.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:forpol:v:12:y:2010:i:4:p:239-249. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.