IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Optimal scheduling of combined heat and power plants using mixed-integer nonlinear programming


  • Kim, Jong Suk
  • Edgar, Thomas F.


This paper presents the application of MINLP (mixed-integer nonlinear programming) approach for scheduling of a CHP (combined heat and power) plant in the day-ahead wholesale energy markets. This work employs first principles models to describe the nonlinear dynamics of a CHP plant and its individual components. The MINLP framework includes practical constraints such as minimum/maximum power output and steam flow restrictions, minimum up/down times, start-up and shut-down procedures, and fuel limits. Special care is given to the explicit modeling of the unit start-up types (hot, warm, and cold), which depend on the component's prior reservation time, resulting in the differences in the time-dependent start-up costs of generating units. The model also accounts for the different operating modes (synchronization, soak, dispatch, and desynchronization) during start-up and shut-down of each unit. We provide case studies involving the Hal C. Weaver power plant complex at the University of Texas at Austin to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show that the optimized operating strategies can yield substantial net incomes from electricity sales.

Suggested Citation

  • Kim, Jong Suk & Edgar, Thomas F., 2014. "Optimal scheduling of combined heat and power plants using mixed-integer nonlinear programming," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 675-690.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:77:y:2014:i:c:p:675-690
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Verbruggen, Aviel & Dewallef, Pierre & Quoilin, Sylvain & Wiggin, Michael, 2013. "Unveiling the mystery of Combined Heat & Power (cogeneration)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 575-582.
    2. Akorede, Mudathir Funsho & Hizam, Hashim & Pouresmaeil, Edris, 2010. "Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 724-734, February.
    3. Lin, Fu & Yi, Jiang, 2000. "Optimal operation of a CHP plant for space heating as a peak load regulating plant," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 283-298.
    4. Bogdan, Željko & Kopjar, Damir, 2006. "Improvement of the cogeneration plant economy by using heat accumulator," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(13), pages 2285-2292.
    5. Thornton, Alexander & Monroy, Carlos Rodríguez, 2011. "Distributed power generation in the United States," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4809-4817.
    6. Stoppato, A. & Mirandola, A. & Meneghetti, G. & Lo Casto, E., 2012. "On the operation strategy of steam power plants working at variable load: Technical and economic issues," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 228-236.
    7. Rolfsman, Björn, 2004. "Combined heat-and-power plants and district heating in a deregulated electricity market," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 37-52, May.
    8. Bracco, Stefano & Delfino, Federico & Pampararo, Fabio & Robba, Michela & Rossi, Mansueto, 2014. "A mathematical model for the optimal operation of the University of Genoa Smart Polygeneration Microgrid: Evaluation of technical, economic and environmental performance indicators," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 912-922.
    9. Fragaki, Aikaterini & Andersen, Anders N. & Toke, David, 2008. "Exploration of economical sizing of gas engine and thermal store for combined heat and power plants in the UK," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 1659-1670.
    10. Mitra, Sumit & Sun, Lige & Grossmann, Ignacio E., 2013. "Optimal scheduling of industrial combined heat and power plants under time-sensitive electricity prices," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 194-211.
    11. Streckiene, Giedre & Martinaitis, Vytautas & Andersen, Anders N. & Katz, Jonas, 2009. "Feasibility of CHP-plants with thermal stores in the German spot market," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(11), pages 2308-2316, November.
    12. Aghaei, Jamshid & Alizadeh, Mohammad-Iman, 2013. "Multi-objective self-scheduling of CHP (combined heat and power)-based microgrids considering demand response programs and ESSs (energy storage systems)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 1044-1054.
    13. Wang, Jiangjiang & Zhai, Zhiqiang (John) & Jing, Youyin & Zhang, Chunfa, 2011. "Influence analysis of building types and climate zones on energetic, economic and environmental performances of BCHP systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(9), pages 3097-3112.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:77:y:2014:i:c:p:675-690. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.