IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/energy/v140y2017ip1p1148-1157.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Economic evaluation of flameless phosphate rock calcination with concentrated solar power and high temperature reactors

Author

Listed:
  • Haneklaus, Nils
  • Schröders, Sarah
  • Zheng, Yanhua
  • Allelein, Hans-Josef

Abstract

Flameless calcination, where a heat transfer fluid is used to provide heat for the calcination reaction to a mineral feed material may reduce direct carbon dioxide emissions during calcination by 50%. Concentrated solar power (CSP) and high temperature reactors (HTRs) are low-carbon emitting energy sources suitable for flameless calcination. This work provides a brief economic evaluation of flameless phosphate rock calcination with CSP/HTRs as heat sources. The economic evaluation consists of cost comparisons against gas-fired kilns and economic feasibility calculations based on the net present value method. The flameless system with CSP/HTRs is currently not cost-competitive. Anticipated cost reductions and higher natural gas prices may, however, change this outcome in the future. For the flameless system to be competitive low-interest rates (5–10%) and higher natural gas prices (7.5–10 US$/mmBTU) need to be present. Although the flameless system with CSP/HTRs is presently not cost-competitive it can be economically viable given low-interest rates (≤5%) and higher end heat selling prices (≥45 US$/MWhth).

Suggested Citation

  • Haneklaus, Nils & Schröders, Sarah & Zheng, Yanhua & Allelein, Hans-Josef, 2017. "Economic evaluation of flameless phosphate rock calcination with concentrated solar power and high temperature reactors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 140(P1), pages 1148-1157.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:140:y:2017:i:p1:p:1148-1157
    DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2017.08.123
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544217314986
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ioannis N. Kessides & Vladimir Kuznetsov, 2012. "Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(8), pages 1-27, August.
    2. Amadei, C.A. & Allesina, G. & Tartarini, P. & Yuting, Wu, 2013. "Simulation of GEMASOLAR-based solar tower plants for the Chinese energy market: Influence of plant downsizing and location change," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 366-373.
    3. Li, Qi & Flamant, Gilles & Yuan, Xigang & Neveu, Pierre & Luo, Lingai, 2011. "Compact heat exchangers: A review and future applications for a new generation of high temperature solar receivers," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 4855-4875.
    4. Ho, Clifford K. & Iverson, Brian D., 2014. "Review of high-temperature central receiver designs for concentrating solar power," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 835-846.
    5. Vujić, Jasmina & Bergmann, Ryan M. & Škoda, Radek & Miletić, Marija, 2012. "Small modular reactors: Simpler, safer, cheaper?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 288-295.
    6. Ramana, M.V. & Ahmad, Ali, 2016. "Wishful thinking and real problems: Small modular reactors, planning constraints, and nuclear power in Jordan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 236-245.
    7. Khatib, Hisham, 2014. "Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 71-77.
    8. Hinkley, James T. & Hayward, Jennifer A. & Curtin, Bryan & Wonhas, Alex & Boyd, Rod & Grima, Charles & Tadros, Amir & Hall, Ross & Naicker, Kevin, 2013. "An analysis of the costs and opportunities for concentrating solar power in Australia," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 653-661.
    9. Ali, M.B. & Saidur, R. & Hossain, M.S., 2011. "A review on emission analysis in cement industries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 2252-2261, June.
    10. Meier, Anton & Bonaldi, Enrico & Cella, Gian Mario & Lipinski, Wojciech & Wuillemin, Daniel & Palumbo, Robert, 2004. "Design and experimental investigation of a horizontal rotary reactor for the solar thermal production of lime," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 811-821.
    11. Carlsson, Johan & Shropshire, David E. & van Heek, Aliki & Fütterer, Michael A., 2012. "Economic viability of small nuclear reactors in future European cogeneration markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 396-406.
    12. Zhang, H.L. & Baeyens, J. & Degrève, J. & Cacères, G., 2013. "Concentrated solar power plants: Review and design methodology," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 466-481.
    13. Frederick Ploeg & Cees Withagen, 2014. "Growth, Renewables, And The Optimal Carbon Tax," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 55, pages 283-311, February.
    14. Kim, Haeyeon & G. Eggert, Roderick & W. Carlsen, Brett & W. Dixon, Brent, 2016. "Potential uranium supply from phosphoric acid: A U.S. analysis comparing solvent extraction and Ion exchange recovery," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 222-231.
    15. Alonso, Gustavo & Bilbao, Sama & Valle, Edmundo del, 2016. "Economic competitiveness of small modular reactors versus coal and combined cycle plants," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 116(P1), pages 867-879.
    16. Ramana, M.V. & Hopkins, Laura Berzak & Glaser, Alexander, 2013. "Licensing small modular reactors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 555-564.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:1:p:235-:d:127378 is not listed on IDEAS

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:140:y:2017:i:p1:p:1148-1157. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/energy .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.