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Economic evaluation of flameless phosphate rock calcination with concentrated solar power and high temperature reactors


  • Haneklaus, Nils
  • Schröders, Sarah
  • Zheng, Yanhua
  • Allelein, Hans-Josef


Flameless calcination, where a heat transfer fluid is used to provide heat for the calcination reaction to a mineral feed material may reduce direct carbon dioxide emissions during calcination by 50%. Concentrated solar power (CSP) and high temperature reactors (HTRs) are low-carbon emitting energy sources suitable for flameless calcination. This work provides a brief economic evaluation of flameless phosphate rock calcination with CSP/HTRs as heat sources. The economic evaluation consists of cost comparisons against gas-fired kilns and economic feasibility calculations based on the net present value method. The flameless system with CSP/HTRs is currently not cost-competitive. Anticipated cost reductions and higher natural gas prices may, however, change this outcome in the future. For the flameless system to be competitive low-interest rates (5–10%) and higher natural gas prices (7.5–10 US$/mmBTU) need to be present. Although the flameless system with CSP/HTRs is presently not cost-competitive it can be economically viable given low-interest rates (≤5%) and higher end heat selling prices (≥45 US$/MWhth).

Suggested Citation

  • Haneklaus, Nils & Schröders, Sarah & Zheng, Yanhua & Allelein, Hans-Josef, 2017. "Economic evaluation of flameless phosphate rock calcination with concentrated solar power and high temperature reactors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 140(P1), pages 1148-1157.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:140:y:2017:i:p1:p:1148-1157
    DOI: 10.1016/

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