IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets


  • Özdemir, Enver Doruk
  • Härdtlein, Marlies
  • Eltrop, Ludger


The provision of biofuels today is based on energy crops rather than residual biomass, which results in the requirement of agricultural land area. The side products may serve as animal feed and thus prevent cultivation of other feedstock and the use of corresponding land area. These effects of biofuel provision have to be taken into account for a comprising assessment of land area requirement for biofuel provision. Between 18.5 and 21.1 Mio. hectares (ha) of land area is needed to meet the EU 2020 biofuel target depending on the biofuel portfolio when substitution effects are neglected. The utilization of the bioethanol side products distiller's dried grain and solubles (DDGS) and pressed beet slices may save up to 0.7 Mio. ha of maize cultivation area in the EU. The substitution effect due to the utilization of biodiesel side products (oil cakes of rape, palm and soy) as animal feed may account for up to 7.1 Mio. ha of soy cultivation area in Brazil. The results show that the substitution of land area due to use of side products might ease the pressures on land area requirement considerably and should therefore not be neglected in assessing the impacts of biofuel provision worldwide.

Suggested Citation

  • Özdemir, Enver Doruk & Härdtlein, Marlies & Eltrop, Ludger, 2009. "Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2986-2996, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:8:p:2986-2996

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Russi, Daniela, 2008. "An integrated assessment of a large-scale biodiesel production in Italy: Killing several birds with one stone?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 1169-1180, March.
    2. Yahya, Tunku Mahmud Bin Tunku & Sukir, Sarmin Bin, 2005. "Prospects of Feed Crops in Malaysia," Working Papers 32671, United Nations Centre for Alleviation of Poverty Through Secondary Crops' Development in Asia and the Pacific (CAPSA).
    3. Lokollo, Erna M. & Hutabarat, Budiman & Swastika, Dewa K.S., 2006. "Status and prospects of feed crops in southeast Asia: an integrated report," Working Papers 32693, United Nations Centre for Alleviation of Poverty Through Secondary Crops' Development in Asia and the Pacific (CAPSA).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Schmitt, William F. & Szklo, Alexandre & Schaeffer, Roberto, 2011. "Policies for improving the efficiency of the Brazilian light-duty vehicle fleet and their implications for fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3163-3176, June.
    2. Mathews, John A. & Tan, Hao & Moore, Michael J.B. & Bell, Geoff, 2011. "A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4932-4938, September.
    3. Shortall, O.K., 2013. "“Marginal land” for energy crops: Exploring definitions and embedded assumptions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 19-27.
    4. Jung, Jong-Min & Kim, Sok & Lee, Jechan & Oh, Jeong Ik & Choi, Yoon-E. & Kwon, Eilhann E., 2019. "Tailoring pyrogenic products from pyrolysis of defatted Euglena gracilis using CO2 as reactive gas medium," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 174(C), pages 184-190.
    5. Krissana Treesilvattanakul & Farzad Taheripour & Wallace E. Tyner, 2014. "Application of US and EU Sustainability Criteria to Analysis of Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(8), pages 1-10, August.
    6. Schaffartzik, Anke & Plank, Christina & Brad, Alina, 2014. "Ukraine and the great biofuel potential? A political material flow analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 12-21.
    7. Ge, Leilei & Wang, Peng & Mou, Haijin, 2011. "Study on saccharification techniques of seaweed wastes for the transformation of ethanol," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 84-89.
    8. Russo, D. & Dassisti, M. & Lawlor, V. & Olabi, A.G., 2012. "State of the art of biofuels from pure plant oil," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 4056-4070.
    9. Bubeck, Steffen & Tomaschek, Jan & Fahl, Ulrich, 2016. "Perspectives of electric mobility: Total cost of ownership of electric vehicles in Germany," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 63-77.
    10. Raslavicius, Laurencas & Grzybek, Anna & Dubrovin, Valeriy, 2011. "Bioenergy in Ukraine--Possibilities of rural development and opportunities for local communities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3370-3379, June.
    11. Timilsina, Govinda R. & Shrestha, Ashish, 2011. "How much hope should we have for biofuels?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 2055-2069.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:8:p:2986-2996. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.