IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Development challenges under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--Can renewable energy initiatives be put in place before peak oil?


  • Lloyd, Bob
  • Subbarao, Srikanth


The "Sustainable Development" aspect of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol is examined, with regard to its current impact on crucial developmental issues. The paper discusses the immediate and urgent global concerns of developmental needs, energy and climate change, whilst highlighting their influence on the poor in the developing world. The global responses to address the above concerns in terms of renewable energy technologies, policies and strategies that can be instrumental in addressing the issues are discussed, with main emphasis on the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol. The critical issue of whether the CDM can address poverty alleviation and sustainable development in developing countries is discussed in the context of existing market principles, transparency of the mechanism, economics and the daunting bureaucratic procedures involved. The paper concludes that the CDM, if suitably modified, can go some way to address sustainable development and alleviate poverty for poor rural areas and not increase emissions by a focus on renewable energy technologies. This result can be achieved as the energy consumption of rural sectors is currently so small relative to developed economies that only small additional renewable energy generation capacities are needed to make a measurable difference.

Suggested Citation

  • Lloyd, Bob & Subbarao, Srikanth, 2009. "Development challenges under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--Can renewable energy initiatives be put in place before peak oil?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 237-245, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:1:p:237-245

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Wolfgang Sterk & Bettina Wittneben, 2006. "Enhancing the clean development mechanism through sectoral approaches: definitions, applications and ways forward," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 271-287, September.
    2. Dorian, James P. & Franssen, Herman T. & Simbeck, Dale R., 2006. "Global challenges in energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(15), pages 1984-1991, October.
    3. Lloyd, Bob, 2007. "The Commons revisited: The tragedy continues," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5806-5818, November.
    4. M D Shamsuddoha & Rezaul Karim Chowdhury, 2008. "The Political Economy of UNFCCC's Bali Climate Conference: A roadmap to climate commercialization," Development, Palgrave Macmillan;Society for International Deveopment, vol. 51(3), pages 397-402, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Subbarao, Srikanth & Lloyd, Bob, 2011. "Can the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) deliver?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1600-1611, March.
    2. Jo Dirix & Wouter Peeters & Sigrid Sterckx, 2016. "Is the Clean Development Mechanism delivering benefits to the poorest communities in the developing world? A critical evaluation and proposals for reform," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 839-855, June.
    3. Rahman, Farahiyah Abdul & Aziz, Md Maniruzzaman A. & Saidur, R. & Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu & Hainin, M.R & Putrajaya, Ramadhansyah & Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul, 2017. "Pollution to solution: Capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and its utilization as a renewable energy source for a sustainable future," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 112-126.
    4. Herbes, Carsten & Friege, Christian & Baldo, Davide & Mueller, Kai-Markus, 2015. "Willingness to pay lip service? Applying a neuroscience-based method to WTP for green electricity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 562-572.
    5. Lin, Tyrone T. & Huang, Shio-Ling, 2011. "Application of the modified Tobin's q to an uncertain energy-saving project with the real options concept," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 408-420, January.
    6. Zografakis, Nikolaos & Sifaki, Elli & Pagalou, Maria & Nikitaki, Georgia & Psarakis, Vasilios & Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P., 2010. "Assessment of public acceptance and willingness to pay for renewable energy sources in Crete," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 1088-1095, April.
    7. Arango, Santiago & Larsen, Erik R., 2010. "The environmental paradox in generation: How South America is gradually becoming more dependent on thermal generation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 2956-2965, December.
    8. Lee, Zhi Hua & Sethupathi, Sumathi & Lee, Keat Teong & Bhatia, Subhash & Mohamed, Abdul Rahman, 2013. "An overview on global warming in Southeast Asia: CO2 emission status, efforts done, and barriers," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 71-81.
    9. Mandaloufas, Melissa & Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz & Brown, Scott & Irizarry Quintero, Anamari, 2015. "Energy balance analysis of the Brazilian alcohol for flex fuel production," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 403-414.
    10. Gopal, C. & Mohanraj, M. & Chandramohan, P. & Chandrasekar, P., 2013. "Renewable energy source water pumping systems—A literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 351-370.
    11. Howden-Chapman, Philippa & Viggers, Helen & Chapman, Ralph & O’Sullivan, Kimberley & Telfar Barnard, Lucy & Lloyd, Bob, 2012. "Tackling cold housing and fuel poverty in New Zealand: A review of policies, research, and health impacts," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 134-142.
    12. Wang, Can & Zhang, Weishi & Cai, Wenjia & Xie, Xi, 2013. "Employment impacts of CDM projects in China's power sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 481-491.
    13. Dale, Michael & Krumdieck, Susan & Bodger, Pat, 2011. "Net energy yield from production of conventional oil," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7095-7102.
    14. Nautiyal, Himanshu & Varun,, 2012. "Progress in renewable energy under clean development mechanism in India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 2913-2919.
    15. Lloyd, Bob & Forest, Andrew S., 2010. "The transition to renewables: Can PV provide an answer to the peak oil and climate change challenges?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 7378-7394, November.
    16. Lin, Tyrone T. & Huang, Shio-Ling, 2010. "An entry and exit model on the energy-saving investment strategy with real options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 794-802, February.
    17. Anderson, Brilé & Bernauer, Thomas, 2016. "How much carbon offsetting and where? Implications of efficiency, effectiveness, and ethicality considerations for public opinion formation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 387-395.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:1:p:237-245. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.