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Knowledge Creates Markets: The influence of entrepreneurial support and patent rights on academic entrepreneurship

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk
  • Doherr, Thorsten
  • Hussinger, Katrin
  • Schliessler, Paula
  • Toole, Andrew A.

Abstract

We use an exogenous change in German Federal law to examine how entrepreneurial support and the ownership of patent rights influence academic entrepreneurship. In 2002, the German Federal Government enacted a major reform called Knowledge Creates Markets that set up new infrastructure to facilitate university-industry technology transfer and shifted the ownership of patent rights from university researchers to their universities. Based on a novel researcher-level panel database that includes a control group not affected by the policy change, we find no evidence that the new infrastructure resulted in an increase in start-up companies by university researchers. The shift in patent rights may have strengthened the relationship between patents on university-discovered inventions and university start-ups; however, it substantially decreased the volume of patents with the largest decrease taking place in faculty-firm patenting relationships.

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk & Doherr, Thorsten & Hussinger, Katrin & Schliessler, Paula & Toole, Andrew A., 2016. "Knowledge Creates Markets: The influence of entrepreneurial support and patent rights on academic entrepreneurship," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 131-146.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:86:y:2016:i:c:p:131-146
    DOI: 10.1016/j.euroecorev.2016.04.010
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    2. Ouellette, Lisa Larrimore & Tutt, Andrew, 2020. "How do patent incentives affect university researchers?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    3. Guido Buenstorf & Dominik P. Heinisch, 2020. "Science and industry evolution: evidence from the first 50 years of the German laser industry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 54(2), pages 523-538, February.
    4. Bijedić, Teita & Chlosta, Simone & Hossinger, Stefan & Kasdorf, Alina & Schneck, Stefan & Schröder, Christian & Werner, Arndt & Nielen, Sebastian & Oschmann, Sebastian, 2017. "Gründungserfolg von Wissenschaftlern an deutschen Hochschulen," IfM-Materialien 257, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
    5. Francisco Javier Miranda & Antonio Chamorro & Sergio Rubio, 2018. "Re-thinking university spin-off: a critical literature review and a research agenda," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 1007-1038, August.
    6. Belitski, Maksim & Aginskaja, Anna & Marozau, Radzivon, 2019. "Commercializing university research in transition economies: Technology transfer offices or direct industrial funding?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 601-615.
    7. Civera, Alice & Meoli, Michele & Vismara, Silvio, 2020. "Engagement of academics in university technology transfer: Opportunity and necessity academic entrepreneurship," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    8. Erdős, Katalin, 2019. "Egyetemi vállalkozások Magyarországon - újragondolva? [University spin-off in Hungary - Rethought?]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(3), pages 305-329.
    9. Jafari-Sadeghi, Vahid & Garcia-Perez, Alexeis & Candelo, Elena & Couturier, Jerome, 2021. "Exploring the impact of digital transformation on technology entrepreneurship and technological market expansion: The role of technology readiness, exploration and exploitation," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 100-111.
    10. Pisarska Aleksandra, 2019. "Cooperative relations between public higher education institutions: the contextual nature of the process of their creation," Management, Sciendo, vol. 23(2), pages 205-222, December.
    11. Fischer, Bruno Brandão & Moraes, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes de & Schaeffer, Paola Rücker, 2019. "Universities' institutional settings and academic entrepreneurship: Notes from a developing country," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 243-252.
    12. Bruno Brandão Fischer & Paola Rücker Schaeffer & Nicholas S. Vonortas & Sérgio Queiroz, 2018. "Quality comes first: university-industry collaboration as a source of academic entrepreneurship in a developing country," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 263-284, April.
    13. Buenstorf, Guido & Heinisch, Dominik P., 2020. "When do firms get ideas from hiring PhDs?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(3).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Intellectual property; Patents; Technology transfer; Policy evaluation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy

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