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On the interpretation of panel unit root tests

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  • Pesaran, M. Hashem

Abstract

Applications of panel unit root tests have become commonplace in empirical economics, yet there are ambiguities as how best to interpret the test results. This note clarifies that rejection of the panel unit root hypothesis should be interpreted as evidence that a statistically significant proportion of the units are stationary. Accordingly, in the event of a rejection, and in applications where the time dimension of the panel is relatively large, it recommends the test outcome to be augmented with an estimate of the proportion of the cross-section units for which the individual unit root tests are rejected. The economic importance of the rejection can be measured by the magnitude of this proportion.

Suggested Citation

  • Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2012. "On the interpretation of panel unit root tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 545-546.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:116:y:2012:i:3:p:545-546
    DOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2012.04.049
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hashem Pesaran, M., 2007. "A pair-wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 312-355, May.
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    6. Ng, Serena, 2008. "A Simple Test for Nonstationarity in Mixed Panels," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 113-127, January.
    7. Chang, Yoosoon, 2004. "Bootstrap unit root tests in panels with cross-sectional dependency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 263-293, June.
    8. Chang, Yoosoon, 2002. "Nonlinear IV unit root tests in panels with cross-sectional dependency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 261-292, October.
    9. Christoph Hanck, 2009. "For which countries did PPP hold? A multiple testing approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 93-103, September.
    10. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    11. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ikeno, Hidehiro, 2014. "Long-run analysis on convergence of Japanese local price levels: A pairwise approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 390-397.
    2. Pedroni, Peter L. & Vogelsang, Timothy J. & Wagner, Martin & Westerlund, Joakim, 2015. "Nonparametric rank tests for non-stationary panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 185(2), pages 378-391.
    3. Parker, Karen F. & Stansfield, Richard & McCall, Patricia L., 2016. "Temporal changes in racial violence, 1980 to 2006: A latent trajectory approach," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 1-11.
    4. repec:nea:journl:y:2017:i:35:p:71-102 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Togbenu, Fo-Kossi Edem, 2017. "Un réexamen de la relation entre dépenses publiques et croissance économique dans les pays en développements à partir d'un modèle de panel dynamique
      [A reexamination of the relation between public
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    6. Thomas Heister & Christian Hagist & Klaus Kaier, 2015. "Resistance Elasticity of Antibiotic Demand in Intensive Care," WHU Working Paper Series - Economics Group 15-01, WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management.
    7. Hua Liao & Huaishu Cao, 2012. "How does carbon dioxide emission change with the economic development? Statistical experiences from 132 countries," CEEP-BIT Working Papers 54, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology.
    8. M. E. Bontempi & L. Bottazzi & R. Golinelli, 2015. "Dynamic corporate capital structure behavior: empirical assessment in the light of heterogeneity and non stationarity," Working Papers wp988, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    9. Couharde, Cécile & Coulibaly, Issiaka & Damette, Olivier, 2013. "Anchor currency and real exchange rate dynamics in the CFA Franc zone," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 722-732.
    10. Kaddour Hadri & Eiji Kurozumi & Daisuke Yamazaki, 2015. "Synergy between an Improved Covariate Unit Root Test and Cross-sectionally Dependent Panel Data Unit Root Tests," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83(6), pages 676-700, December.
    11. Hajamini, Mehdi, 2015. "The non-linear effect of population growth and linear effect of age structure on per capita income: A threshold dynamic panel structural model," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 43-58.
    12. Smeekes S. & Urbain J.R.Y.J., 2014. "A multivariate invariance principle for modified wild bootstrap methods with an application to unit root testing," Research Memorandum 008, Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics (GSBE).
    13. Eiji Kurozumi & Daisuke Yamazaki & Kaddour Hadri, 2012. "Covariate Unit Root Test for Cross-Sectionally Dependent Panel Data," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd12-256, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    14. Westerlund, Joakim & Thuraisamy, Kannan, 2016. "Panel multi-predictor test procedures with an application to emerging market sovereign risk," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 44-60.
    15. Ma, Ben, 2015. "Does urbanization affect energy intensities across provinces in China?Long-run elasticities estimation using dynamic panels with heterogeneous slopes," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 390-401.
    16. Westerlund, Joakim & Thuraisamy, Kannan & Sharma, Susan, 2015. "On the use of panel cointegration tests in energy economics," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 359-363.
    17. Mehdi Hajamini & Mohammad Ali Falahi, 2014. "The nonlinear impact of government consumption expenditure on economic growth: Evidence from low and low-middle income countries," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 1-15, December.
    18. Giuseppe Cavaliere & Dimitris N. Politis & Anders Rahbek & Stephan Smeekes, 2015. "Recent developments in bootstrap methods for dependent data," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 398-415, May.
    19. Ikeno, Hidehiro, 2014. "Pairwise tests of convergence of Japanese local price levels," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 232-248.
    20. Damen, Sven & Vastmans, Frank & Buyst, Erik, 2016. "The effect of mortgage interest deduction and mortgage characteristics on house prices," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 15-29.
    21. repec:spr:portec:v:16:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10258-017-0134-0 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Unit root tests; Panels; Statistical significance;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

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