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Analyses of water footprint of Beijing in an interregional input–output framework


  • Zhang, Zhuoying
  • Yang, Hong
  • Shi, Minjun


Beijing is under severe water resource pressure due to the rapid economic development and growing population. This study quantitatively evaluates the water footprint of Beijing in an interregional input–output framework with a focus on blue water resources and uses. The inter-connections of water resources between Beijing and other provinces are analyzed with a sectoral specification. The results show that the total water footprint of Beijing is 4498.4 106m3/year, of which 51% is from the external water footprint acquired through virtual water import. Agriculture has the highest water footprint of 1524.5 106m3/year with 56% coming from external sources. The main virtual water provider for Beijing is Hebei, another water scarce region, from which Beijing receives virtual water of 373.3 106m3/year with 40% from agriculture. The results of this study suggest that the interregional trade coordination, especially for the main sectors with high water use intensity, is important for enhancing the efficiency of regional and national water resource utilization.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhang, Zhuoying & Yang, Hong & Shi, Minjun, 2011. "Analyses of water footprint of Beijing in an interregional input–output framework," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(12), pages 2494-2502.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:70:y:2011:i:12:p:2494-2502
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2011.08.011

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Su, Bin & Huang, H.C. & Ang, B.W. & Zhou, P., 2010. "Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of sector aggregation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 166-175, January.
    2. Guan, Dabo & Hubacek, Klaus, 2007. "Assessment of regional trade and virtual water flows in China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 159-170, February.
    3. Yu, Yang & Hubacek, Klaus & Feng, Kuishuang & Guan, Dabo, 2010. "Assessing regional and global water footprints for the UK," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1140-1147, March.
    4. Erik Dietzenbacher & Esther Velazquez, 2007. "Analysing Andalusian Virtual Water Trade in an Input-Output Framework," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 185-196.
    5. Yong Wang & Hong-lang Xiao & Rui-fang Wang, 2009. "Water Scarcity and Water Use in Economic Systems in Zhangye City, Northwestern China," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 23(13), pages 2655-2668, October.
    6. A. Hoekstra & A. Chapagain, 2007. "Water footprints of nations: Water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 21(1), pages 35-48, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kharrazi, Ali & Sato, Masahiro & Yarime, Masaru & Nakayama, Hirofumi & Yu, Yadong & Kraines, Steven, 2015. "Examining the resilience of national energy systems: Measurements of diversity in production-based and consumption-based electricity in the globalization of trade networks," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 455-464.
    2. Xin, Li & Feng, Kuishuang & Siu, Yim Ling & Hubacek, Klaus, 2015. "Challenges faced when energy meets water: CO2 and water implications of power generation in inner Mongolia of China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 419-430.
    3. Dongchun Ma & Chaofan Xian & Jing Zhang & Ruochen Zhang & Zhiyun Ouyang, 2015. "The Evaluation of Water Footprints and Sustainable Water Utilization in Beijing," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(10), pages 1-16, September.
    4. Han, M.Y. & Chen, G.Q. & Mustafa, M.T. & Hayat, T. & Shao, Ling & Li, J.S. & Xia, X.H. & Ji, Xi, 2015. "Embodied water for urban economy: A three-scale input–output analysis for Beijing 2010," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 318(C), pages 19-25.
    5. Zhang, Bo & Qiao, H. & Chen, B., 2015. "Embodied energy uses by China’s four municipalities: A study based on multi-regional input–output model," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 318(C), pages 138-149.
    6. Xueting Zhao & Randall W. Jackson, 2016. "China’s Inter-Regional Trade of Virtual Water — A Multi-Regional Input–Output Table Based Analysis," Water Economics and Policy (WEP), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 2(02), pages 1-28, June.
    7. Xueting Zhao, 2014. "China's Inter-regional Trade of Virtual Water: a Multi-regional Input-output Modeling," Working Papers Working Paper 2014-04, Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University.
    8. White, David J. & Feng, Kuishuang & Sun, Laixiang & Hubacek, Klaus, 2015. "A hydro-economic MRIO analysis of the Haihe River Basin's water footprint and water stress," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 318(C), pages 157-167.
    9. Willa Paterson & Richard Rushforth & Benjamin L. Ruddell & Megan Konar & Ikechukwu C. Ahams & Jorge Gironás & Ana Mijic & Alfonso Mejia, 2015. "Water Footprint of Cities: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(7), pages 1-30, June.
    10. repec:eee:ecoser:v:26:y:2017:i:pb:p:422-430 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Erik Dietzenbacher & Manfred Lenzen & Bart Los & Dabo Guan & Michael L. Lahr & Ferran Sancho & Sangwon Suh & Cuihong Yang, 2013. "Input--Output Analysis: The Next 25 Years," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(4), pages 369-389, December.
    12. Zhang, Chao & Anadon, Laura Diaz, 2014. "A multi-regional input–output analysis of domestic virtual water trade and provincial water footprint in China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 159-172.
    13. Mubako, Stanley & Lahiri, Sajal & Lant, Christopher, 2013. "Input–output analysis of virtual water transfers: Case study of California and Illinois," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 230-238.
    14. Yan, Tingting & Wang, Jinxia & Huang, Jikun, 2015. "Urbanization, agricultural water use, and regional and national crop production in China," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 318(C), pages 226-235.
    15. repec:eee:ecolec:v:146:y:2018:i:c:p:148-156 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Yu, Yadong & Ren, Hongtao & Kharrazi, Ali & Ma, Tieju & Zhu, Bing, 2015. "Exploring socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressure on the city level: The case study of Chongqing in China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 123-131.
    17. repec:spr:jecstr:v:6:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1186_s40008-017-0068-9 is not listed on IDEAS


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