On deposit volumes and the valuation of non-maturing liabilities
In this paper we propose a framework for the modelling of non-maturing liabilities, the latter referring to deposits without a specific maturity or deposits whose actual time horizon significantly differs from their contractual maturity. The set of non-maturing liabilities include most of the traditional deposit accounts like demand deposits and savings accounts and form the basis of the funding for depository institutions. Our framework consists of three pieces: models for market rates, deposit rates and deposit volumes. For the market rate an extended one-factor Vasicek model is used but the framework developed is general and any other and potentially more sophisticated and accurate model for the market rate can be applied. Deposit rates are modelled using policy functions which are allowed to depend on the current market rate and the volume deposited. Concerning deposit volumes we develop a framework in which models for deposit volumes can be derived in theoretically sound way. This is done in two steps. In the first step we propose reasonable rules or strategies based on which we attempt to capture the behaviour of the individual customer. In the second step we then define notions of homogeneity in customer behaviour and use these to derive models for the behaviour of the 'average customer' and for the volumes deposited by the 'average customer'. Finally, the pieces of the framework are integrated in a valuation formula, we here use the approach of Jarrow and Van Deventer [1998. The arbitrage-free valuation and hedging of demand deposits and credit card loans. Journal of Banking and Finance 22, 249-272], and a value is assigned to a portfolio of demand deposits. This valuation formula also forms the basis for the risk management of the interest rate risk embedded in the demand deposits.
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