School-age special education outcomes of infants and toddlers investigated for maltreatment
Examination of a nationally representative, longitudinal study of infants and toddlers investigated for maltreatment reveals disproportionate representation of teen mothers, fair/poor health, poverty, and being African-American. Infants are more likely to have special needs reported, subst`ance abusing caregivers, low-quality home environment, out-of-home placement, physical neglect, and substantiated maltreatment. At school-age, approximately one-fifth of all investigated infants and toddlers have an Individualized Education Program (IEP), indicating special education placement. Early characteristics associated with having an IEP include poverty, boys, fair/poor health, and low language scores. Hispanic children and those investigated for physical or sexual abuse were less likely to have an IEP. At school-age, infants had lower Woodcock-Johnson-III math subtests scores, whereas toddlers had lower reading comprehension performance.
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NBER Working Papers
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