IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/corfin/v27y2014icp251-268.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

On the value of restrictive covenants: Empirical investigation of public bond issues

Author

Listed:
  • Reisel, Natalia

Abstract

Are restrictive covenants effective mechanisms in mitigating agency problems? Is the magnitude of the increase in the cost of debt due to agency problems non-trivial? We tackle these questions using a large dataset of public bonds. Contrary to the view that restrictive covenants in public bond contracts are standard boilerplates that serve little purpose, we find significant benefits in terms of reduction in the cost of debt associated with covenants. Restrictions on investment activities or issuance of higher priority claims reduce the cost of debt by about 35–75 basis points. These findings suggest that investors view bond covenants as important instruments in mitigating agency problems, and an increase in the cost of debt due to agency problems could be substantial. Additionally, we find that high growth firms and firms with low probability of default are less likely to include covenants suggesting that the costs of covenants outweigh benefits for these types of firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Reisel, Natalia, 2014. "On the value of restrictive covenants: Empirical investigation of public bond issues," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 251-268.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:27:y:2014:i:c:p:251-268
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2014.05.011
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0929119914000637
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2014.05.011?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stohs, Mark Hoven & Mauer, David C, 1996. "The Determinants of Corporate Debt Maturity Structure," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69(3), pages 279-312, July.
    2. Galai, Dan & Masulis, Ronald W., 1976. "The option pricing model and the risk factor of stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 53-81.
    3. Klock, Mark S. & Mansi, Sattar A. & Maxwell, William F., 2005. "Does Corporate Governance Matter to Bondholders?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(4), pages 693-719, December.
    4. Willis, Robert J & Rosen, Sherwin, 1979. "Education and Self-Selection," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 7-36, October.
    5. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Tim Adam & Vidhan K. Goyal, 2008. "The Investment Opportunity Set And Its Proxy Variables," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 31(1), pages 41-63, March.
    7. Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 2001. "The Market for Corporate Assets: Who Engages in Mergers and Asset Sales and Are There Efficiency Gains?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(6), pages 2019-2065, December.
    8. Begley, Joy & Feltham, Gerald A., 1999. "An empirical examination of the relation between debt contracts and management incentives," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 229-259, April.
    9. Philippe Aghion & Patrick Bolton, 1992. "An Incomplete Contracts Approach to Financial Contracting," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(3), pages 473-494.
    10. Eberhart, Allan C & Moore, William T & Roenfeldt, Rodney L, 1990. "Security Pricing and Deviations from the Absolute Priority Rule in Bankruptcy Proceedings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1457-1469, December.
    11. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    12. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
    13. Kahan, Marcel & Yermack, David, 1998. "Investment Opportunities and the Design of Debt Securities," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(1), pages 136-151, April.
    14. Maquieira, Carlos P. & Megginson, William L. & Nail, Lance, 1998. "Wealth creation versus wealth redistributions in pure stock-for-stock mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 3-33, April.
    15. John R. Graham, 2000. "How Big Are the Tax Benefits of Debt?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1901-1941, October.
    16. Wald, John K. & Long, Michael S., 2007. "The effect of state laws on capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 297-319, February.
    17. Jung, Kooyul & Yong-Cheol, Kim & Stulz, Rene M., 1996. "Timing, investment opportunities, managerial discretion, and the security issue decision," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 159-185, October.
    18. John Y. Campbell & Glen B. Taksler, 2003. "Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2321-2350, December.
    19. Asquith, Paul & Wizman, Thierry A., 1990. "Event risk, covenants, and bondholder returns in leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 195-213, September.
    20. Ilia D. Dichev & Douglas J. Skinner, 2002. "Large–Sample Evidence on the Debt Covenant Hypothesis," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 1091-1123, September.
    21. DeFond, Mark L. & Jiambalvo, James, 1994. "Debt covenant violation and manipulation of accruals," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1-2), pages 145-176, January.
    22. William F. Maxwell & Clifford P. Stephens, 2003. "The Wealth Effects of Repurchases on Bondholders," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(2), pages 895-920, April.
    23. Carlos A. Molina, 2005. "Are Firms Underleveraged? An Examination of the Effect of Leverage on Default Probabilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1427-1459, June.
    24. Sweeney, Amy Patricia, 1994. "Debt-covenant violations and managers' accounting responses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 281-308, May.
    25. Dhillon, Upinder S & Johnson, Herb, 1994. "The Effect of Dividend Changes on Stock and Bond Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 281-289, March.
    26. Ilia D. Dichev & Joseph D. Piotroski, 2001. "The Long‐Run Stock Returns Following Bond Ratings Changes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 173-203, February.
    27. Michael R. Roberts & Amir Sufi, 2009. "Control Rights and Capital Structure: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(4), pages 1657-1695, August.
    28. Harvey, Campbell R. & Lins, Karl V. & Roper, Andrew H., 2004. "The effect of capital structure when expected agency costs are extreme," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 3-30, October.
    29. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    30. Gomes, Armando & Phillips, Gordon, 2012. "Why do public firms issue private and public securities?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 619-658.
    31. Parrino, Robert & Weisbach, Michael S., 1999. "Measuring investment distortions arising from stockholder-bondholder conflicts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 3-42, July.
    32. Yaxuan Qi & Lukas Roth & John K Wald, 2011. "How legal environments affect the use of bond covenants," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 42(2), pages 235-262, February.
    33. Asquith, Paul, 1948- & Wizman, Thierry A., 1990. "Event risk, covenants, and bondholder returns in leveraged buyouts," Working papers WP 3173-90., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    34. Yaxuan Qi & John Wald, 2008. "State Laws and Debt Covenants," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(1), pages 179-207, February.
    35. Ram T. S. Ramakrishnan & Anjan V. Thakor, 1984. "Information Reliability and a Theory of Financial Intermediation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 415-432.
    36. Rajan, Raghuram & Winton, Andrew, 1995. "Covenants and Collateral as Incentives to Monitor," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1113-1146, September.
    37. Franks, Julian R & Torous, Walter N, 1989. " An Empirical Investigation of U.S. Firms in Reorganization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 747-769, July.
    38. A. D. Roy, 1951. "Some Thoughts On The Distribution Of Earnings," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(2), pages 135-146.
    39. Warga, Arthur & Welch, Ivo, 1993. "Bondholder Losses in Leveraged Buyouts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(4), pages 959-982.
    40. Heitor Almeida & Thomas Philippon, 2007. "The Risk‐Adjusted Cost of Financial Distress," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(6), pages 2557-2586, December.
    41. Sattar A. Mansi & William F. Maxwell & John K. Wald, 2009. "Creditor Protection Laws and the Cost of Debt," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(4), pages 701-717, November.
    42. Charles J. Hadlock & Joshua R. Pierce, 2010. "New Evidence on Measuring Financial Constraints: Moving Beyond the KZ Index," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(5), pages 1909-1940.
    43. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    44. Matthew T. Billett & Tao-Hsien Dolly King & David C. Mauer, 2004. "Bondholder Wealth Effects in Mergers and Acquisitions: New Evidence from the 1980s and 1990s," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 107-135, February.
    45. Julian R. Franks & Walter N. Torous, 1989. "An Empirical Investigation of U.S. Firms in Reorganization," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 747-769, July.
    46. Darius P. Miller & Natalia Reisel, 2012. "Do Country-level Investor Protections Affect Security-level Contract Design? Evidence from Foreign Bond Covenants," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(2), pages 408-438.
    47. Nini, Greg & Smith, David C. & Sufi, Amir, 2009. "Creditor control rights and firm investment policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 400-420, June.
    48. Goyal, Vidhan K., 2005. "Market discipline of bank risk: Evidence from subordinated debt contracts," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 318-350, July.
    49. Jun Qian & Philip E. Strahan, 2007. "How Laws and Institutions Shape Financial Contracts: The Case of Bank Loans," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(6), pages 2803-2834, December.
    50. Steven Drucker & Manju Puri, 2009. "On Loan Sales, Loan Contracting, and Lending Relationships," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(7), pages 2635-2672, July.
    51. Nianyun (Kelly) Cai & Jean Helwege & Arthur Warga, 2007. "Underpricing in the Corporate Bond Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(6), pages 2021-2046, November.
    52. Kahan, Marcel & Tuckman, Bruce, 1993. "Do Bondholders Lose from Junk Bond Covenant Changes," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66(4), pages 499-516, October.
    53. Matthew T. Billett & Tao‐Hsien Dolly King & David C. Mauer, 2007. "Growth Opportunities and the Choice of Leverage, Debt Maturity, and Covenants," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(2), pages 697-730, April.
    54. Sudheer Chava & Michael R. Roberts, 2008. "How Does Financing Impact Investment? The Role of Debt Covenants," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2085-2121, October.
    55. Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "The effects of capital structure change on security prices : A study of exchange offers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 139-178, June.
    56. Nash, Robert C. & Netter, Jeffry M. & Poulsen, Annette B., 2003. "Determinants of contractual relations between shareholders and bondholders: investment opportunities and restrictive covenants," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 201-232, March.
    57. Sudheer Chava & Praveen Kumar & Arthur Warga, 2010. "Managerial Agency and Bond Covenants," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 1120-1148, March.
    58. Chen, Long & Zhao, Xinlei, 2006. "On the relation between the market-to-book ratio, growth opportunity, and leverage ratio," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 253-266, December.
    59. Smith, Clifford Jr. & Warner, Jerold B., 1979. "On financial contracting : An analysis of bond covenants," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 117-161, June.
    60. Michael J. Barclay & Clifford W. Smith, 1996. "On Financial Architecture: Leverage, Maturity, And Priority," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 8(4), pages 4-17, January.
    61. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Shafron, Emily, 2019. "Investor tastes: Implications for asset pricing in the public debt market," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 6-27.
    2. Wang, Jing, 2017. "Debt covenant design and creditor control rights: Evidence from the tightest covenant," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 331-352.
    3. Zhang, Xinde & Zhou, Simiao, 2018. "Bond covenants and institutional blockholding," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 136-152.
    4. Martin Dòzsa & Karel Janda, 2015. "Corporate asset pricing models and debt contracts," CAMA Working Papers 2015-33, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    5. Cortés, Janko Hernández & Tribó, Josep A & Adamuz, María de las Mercedes, 2020. "Are syndicated loans truly less expensive?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 120(C).
    6. Lim, Steve C. & Mann, Steven C. & Mihov, Vassil T., 2017. "Do operating leases expand credit capacity? Evidence from borrowing costs and credit ratings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 100-114.
    7. Simpson, Marc W. & Grossmann, Axel, 2017. "The value of restrictive covenants in the changing bond market dynamics before and after the financial crisis," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 307-319.
    8. Guangming Gong & Liang Xiao & Si Xu & Xun Gong, 2019. "Do Bond Investors Care About Engagement Auditors’ Negative Experiences? Evidence from China," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 158(3), pages 779-806, September.
    9. Jean Helwege & Jing-Zhi Huang & Yuan Wang, 2017. "Debt Covenants and Cross-Sectional Equity Returns," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(6), pages 1835-1854, June.
    10. Lee, Kevin K. & Miller, Scott A., 2020. "Did covenants distort risk signals from bank subordinated debt yields before the financial crisis?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    11. Bazzana, Flavio & Zadorozhnaya, Anna & Gabriele, Roberto, 2018. "The role of covenants in bond issue. The case of Russian companies," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-18.
    12. Lee, Edward & Pappas, Kostas & Xu, Alice Liang, 2020. "Foreign Lenders’ adoption of performance pricing provisions in syndicated loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    13. Paul Brockman & Sadok El Ghoul & Omrane Guedhami & Ying Zheng, 0. "Does social trust affect international contracting? Evidence from foreign bond covenants," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 0, pages 1-34.
    14. Prilmeier, Robert, 2017. "Why do loans contain covenants? Evidence from lending relationships," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(3), pages 558-579.
    15. Guangming Gong & Si Xu & Xun Gong, 2018. "On the Value of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure: An Empirical Investigation of Corporate Bond Issues in China," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 150(1), pages 227-258, June.
    16. Ma, Zhiming & Stice, Derrald & Williams, Christopher, 2019. "The effect of bank monitoring on public bond terms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 133(2), pages 379-396.
    17. Joachim Jungherr & Immo Schott, 2021. "Optimal Debt Maturity and Firm Investment," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 42, pages 110-132, October.
    18. Andreas Charitou & Irene Karamanou & Anastasia Kopita, 2018. "The determinants and valuation effects of classification choice on the statement of cash flows," Accounting and Business Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(6), pages 613-650, September.
    19. Mansi, Sattar A. & Qi, Yaxuan & Wald, John K., 2021. "Bond covenants, bankruptcy risk, and the cost of debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    20. Zbigniew Korzeb & Pawel Niedziolka, 2021. "Covenant Based Credit Capacity Model for Real Estate Capital Groups: Evidence from Poland," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1), pages 410-420.
    21. Alderson, Michael J. & Lin, Fang & Stock, Duane R., 2017. "Does the choice between fixed price and make whole call provisions reflect differential agency costs?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 442-460.
    22. Charlene P. Spiceland & Leo L. Yang & Joseph H. Zhang, 2016. "Accounting quality, debt covenant design, and the cost of debt," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1271-1302, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bazzana, Flavio & Zadorozhnaya, Anna & Gabriele, Roberto, 2018. "The role of covenants in bond issue. The case of Russian companies," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 1-18.
    2. Wang, Jing, 2017. "Debt covenant design and creditor control rights: Evidence from the tightest covenant," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 331-352.
    3. Prilmeier, Robert, 2017. "Why do loans contain covenants? Evidence from lending relationships," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(3), pages 558-579.
    4. Szilagyi, P.G., 2007. "Corporate governance and the agency costs of debt and outside equity," Other publications TiSEM 9520d40a-224f-43a8-9bf9-b, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    5. Luc Renneboog & Peter G. Szilagyi, 2008. "Corporate Restructuring and Bondholder Wealth," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(4), pages 792-819, September.
    6. Zhang, Xinde & Zhou, Simiao, 2018. "Bond covenants and institutional blockholding," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 136-152.
    7. Francis, Bill B. & Hasan, Iftekhar & John, Kose & Waisman, Maya, 2010. "The effect of state antitakeover laws on the firm's bondholders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 127-154, April.
    8. Freudenberg, Felix & Imbierowicz, Björn & Saunders, Anthony & Steffen, Sascha, 2017. "Covenant violations and dynamic loan contracting," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 540-565.
    9. Cook, Douglas O. & Fu, Xudong & Tang, Tian, 2014. "The effect of liquidity and solvency risk on the inclusion of bond covenants," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 120-136.
    10. Beatriz Mariano & Josep Tribó Giné, 2015. "Creditor Intervention, Investment, and Growth Opportunities," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 203-228, April.
    11. Khalil, Samer & Mansi, Sattar & Mazboudi, Mohamad & Zhang, Andrew (Jianzhong), 2019. "Information asymmetry and the wealth appropriation effect in the bond market: Evidence from late disclosures," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 49-61.
    12. Hans B. Christensen & Valeri V. Nikolaev, 2012. "Capital Versus Performance Covenants in Debt Contracts," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 75-116, March.
    13. Imbierowicz, Björn & Wahrenburg, Mark, 2013. "Wealth transfer effects between stockholders and bondholders," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 23-43.
    14. Simpson, Marc W. & Grossmann, Axel, 2017. "The value of restrictive covenants in the changing bond market dynamics before and after the financial crisis," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 307-319.
    15. Armstrong, Christopher S. & Guay, Wayne R. & Weber, Joseph P., 2010. "The role of information and financial reporting in corporate governance and debt contracting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 179-234, December.
    16. Hines, James R. & Park, Jongsang, 2019. "Investment ramifications of distortionary tax subsidies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 36-51.
    17. Nash, Robert C. & Netter, Jeffry M. & Poulsen, Annette B., 2003. "Determinants of contractual relations between shareholders and bondholders: investment opportunities and restrictive covenants," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 201-232, March.
    18. Maul, D. & Schiereck, D., 2017. "The bond event study methodology since 1974," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 80723, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    19. Sugato Chakravarty & Chiraphol N. Chiyachantana & Christine Jiang, 2011. "THE CHOICE OF TRADING VENUE AND RELATIVE PRICE IMPACT OF INSTITUTIONAL TRADING: ADRs VERSUS THE UNDERLYING SECURITIES IN THEIR LOCAL MARKETS," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 34(4), pages 537-567, December.
    20. Yaxuan Qi & John Wald, 2008. "State Laws and Debt Covenants," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(1), pages 179-207, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Debt contracting; Covenants; Agency theory; Public bonds;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:corfin:v:27:y:2014:i:c:p:251-268. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jcorpfin .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.