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Residential heat pump as flexible load for direct control service with parametrized duration and rebound effect


  • Georges, Emeline
  • Cornélusse, Bertrand
  • Ernst, Damien
  • Lemort, Vincent
  • Mathieu, Sébastien


This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service consists of a power modulation, upward or downward, that is activated at a given time period over a fixed number of periods. The service modulation is relative to an optimized baseline that minimizes the energy costs. The load modulation is directly followed by a constrained rebound effect, consisting of a delay time with no deviations from the baseline consumption and a payback time to return to the baseline state. The potential amount of modulation and the constrained rebound effect are computed by solving mixed integer linear problems. Within these problems, the thermal behavior of the building is modeled by an equivalent thermal network made of resistances and lumped capacitances. Simulations are performed for different sets of buildings typical of the Belgian residential building stock and are presented in terms of achievable modulation amplitude, deviations from the baseline and associated costs. A cluster of one hundred ideal buildings, corresponding to retrofitted freestanding houses, is then chosen to investigate the influence of each parameter defined within the service. Results show that with a set of one hundred heat pumps, a load aggregator could expect to harvest mean modulation amplitudes of up to 138kW for an upward modulation and up to 51kW for a downward modulation. The obtained values strongly depend on the proposed flexibility service. For example, they can decrease down to 2.6kW and 0.4kW, respectively, if no rebound effect is allowed.

Suggested Citation

  • Georges, Emeline & Cornélusse, Bertrand & Ernst, Damien & Lemort, Vincent & Mathieu, Sébastien, 2017. "Residential heat pump as flexible load for direct control service with parametrized duration and rebound effect," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 187(C), pages 140-153.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:appene:v:187:y:2017:i:c:p:140-153
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.11.012

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pavlak, Gregory S. & Henze, Gregor P. & Cushing, Vincent J., 2015. "Evaluating synergistic effect of optimally controlling commercial building thermal mass portfolios," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 161-176.
    2. Hedegaard, Karsten & Balyk, Olexandr, 2013. "Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 356-365.
    3. De Coninck, Roel & Helsen, Lieve, 2016. "Quantification of flexibility in buildings by cost curves – Methodology and application," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 653-665.
    4. Patteeuw, Dieter & Bruninx, Kenneth & Arteconi, Alessia & Delarue, Erik & D’haeseleer, William & Helsen, Lieve, 2015. "Integrated modeling of active demand response with electric heating systems coupled to thermal energy storage systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 306-319.
    5. Patteeuw, Dieter & Reynders, Glenn & Bruninx, Kenneth & Protopapadaki, Christina & Delarue, Erik & D’haeseleer, William & Saelens, Dirk & Helsen, Lieve, 2015. "CO2-abatement cost of residential heat pumps with active demand response: demand- and supply-side effects," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 490-501.
    6. Renaldi, R. & Kiprakis, A. & Friedrich, D., 2017. "An optimisation framework for thermal energy storage integration in a residential heat pump heating system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 186(P3), pages 520-529.
    7. Wang, D. & Parkinson, S. & Miao, W. & Jia, H. & Crawford, C. & Djilali, N., 2012. "Online voltage security assessment considering comfort-constrained demand response control of distributed heat pump systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 104-114.
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    11. Andreas Bloess & Wolf-Peter Schill & Alexander Zerrahn, 2017. "Power-to-Heat for Renewable Energy Integration: Technologies, Modeling Approaches, and Flexibility Potentials," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1677, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
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