IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/agiwat/v243y2021ics0378377419322590.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Standard single and basal crop coefficients for field crops. Updates and advances to the FAO56 crop water requirements method

Author

Listed:
  • Pereira, L.S.
  • Paredes, P.
  • Hunsaker, D.J.
  • López-Urrea, R.
  • Mohammadi Shad, Z.

Abstract

This study reviews the abundant research on FAO56 crop coefficients, published following introduction of the FAO56 paper in 1998. The primary goal was to evaluate, update, and consolidate the mid-season and end-season single (Kc) and basal (Kcb) crop coefficients, tabulated for many field crops in FAO56. The review found that the prevalent approach for estimating crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is the FAO56 Kc-ETo approach, i.e., the product of the Kc and reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The FAO56 Kc-ETo approach requires use of the FAO56 PM-ETo grass reference equation with appropriate crop-specific Kc and/or Kcb. Reviewed research provided various approaches to determine Kc and Kcb and used a variety of actual crop ET (ETc act) measurements. Significant attention was placed on accessing the accuracy of the field measurements and models used in these studies. Accuracy requirements, upper limits for Kc values, and related causal errors are discussed. Conceptual approaches relative to Kc transferability requirements are provided with focus on standard crop conditions and use of the FAO56 segmented Kc curve. Papers selected to update Kc∕Kcb used the FAO56 PM-ETo, provided accurate measurements to determine and partition ETc act, and satisfied transferability requirements. Selected observed Kc and Kcb values were converted to standard, sub-humid climate as adopted in FAO56. Observed values, with respect to tabulated FAO56 Kc and Kcb, were used in consolidating updated values for crops within general categories of grain legumes, fiber crops, oil crops, sugar crops, small grain cereals, maize and sorghum, and rice. Ancillary data, e.g., maximum root depth and crop height, were also collected from selected literature and tabulated. Results showed good agreement between updated and original tabulated FAO56 Kc and Kcb, confirming the reliability of the FAO56 values. This indicates change in the Kc (ETc/ETo ratio) of crops has not occurred due to climate change during the past ≈sixty years. New Kc∕Kcb data for crops, not included in FAO56, are also now presented for several oil crops and pseudo-cereals. The approach adopted for rice differs from FAO56 because consideration was given to the numerous rice water management practices currently used and, thus, Kc∕Kcb values for the initial season of rice were also presented. The review also observed that many research papers did not satisfy the adopted requirements in terms of ETo method and/or the accuracy of ETc act determinations and, therefore, could not be used. Thus, emphasis is placed on adopting improved accuracy and quality control in future research aimed at determining Kc data comparable to presented values. The transferability of standard Kc and Kcb has been assured for the values tabulated herein. Improved future applications of the FAO56 Kc-ETo method should consider remote sensing observations when available, particularly in defining crop growth stages at given locations.

Suggested Citation

  • Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Hunsaker, D.J. & López-Urrea, R. & Mohammadi Shad, Z., 2021. "Standard single and basal crop coefficients for field crops. Updates and advances to the FAO56 crop water requirements method," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 243(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:243:y:2021:i:c:s0378377419322590
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106466
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377419322590
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106466?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Melton, F. & Johnson, L. & Wang, T. & López-Urrea, R. & Cancela, J.J. & Allen, R.G., 2020. "Prediction of crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height. Background and validation using ground and remote sensing data," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 241(C).
    2. Pereira, Luis S. & Paredes, Paula & Rodrigues, Gonçalo C. & Neves, Manuela, 2015. "Modeling malt barley water use and evapotranspiration partitioning in two contrasting rainfall years. Assessing AquaCrop and SIMDualKc models," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 239-254.
    3. Howell, Terry A. & Evett, Steven R. & Tolk, Judy A. & Copeland, Karen S. & Marek, Thomas H., 2015. "Evapotranspiration, water productivity and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the U.S. Southern High Plains," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 33-46.
    4. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & López-Urrea, R. & Hunsaker, D.J. & Mota, M. & Mohammadi Shad, Z., 2021. "Standard single and basal crop coefficients for vegetable crops, an update of FAO56 crop water requirements approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 243(C).
    5. Araya, A. & Stroosnijder, Leo & Girmay, G. & Keesstra, S.D., 2011. "Crop coefficient, yield response to water stress and water productivity of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(5), pages 775-783, March.
    6. Utset, Angel & Velicia, Herminio & del Rio, Blanca & Morillo, Rodrigo & Centeno, Jose Antonio & Martinez, Juan Carlos, 2007. "Calibrating and validating an agrohydrological model to simulate sugarbeet water use under mediterranean conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-3), pages 11-21, December.
    7. Popova, Zornitsa & Pereira, Luis S., 2011. "Modelling for maize irrigation scheduling using long term experimental data from Plovdiv region, Bulgaria," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(4), pages 675-683, February.
    8. Tasumi, Masahiro & Allen, Richard G., 2007. "Satellite-based ET mapping to assess variation in ET with timing of crop development," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 88(1-3), pages 54-62, March.
    9. Duchemin, B. & Hadria, R. & Erraki, S. & Boulet, G. & Maisongrande, P. & Chehbouni, A. & Escadafal, R. & Ezzahar, J. & Hoedjes, J.C.B. & Kharrou, M.H. & Khabba, S. & Mougenot, B. & Olioso, A. & Rodrig, 2006. "Monitoring wheat phenology and irrigation in Central Morocco: On the use of relationships between evapotranspiration, crops coefficients, leaf area index and remotely-sensed vegetation indices," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 1-27, January.
    10. French, Andrew N. & Hunsaker, Douglas J. & Sanchez, Charles A. & Saber, Mazin & Gonzalez, Juan Roberto & Anderson, Ray, 2020. "Satellite-based NDVI crop coefficients and evapotranspiration with eddy covariance validation for multiple durum wheat fields in the US Southwest," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 239(C).
    11. Paredes, Paula & Pereira, Luis S. & Rodrigues, Gonçalo C. & Botelho, Nuno & Torres, Maria Odete, 2017. "Using the FAO dual crop coefficient approach to model water use and productivity of processing pea (Pisum sativum L.) as influenced by irrigation strategies," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 5-18.
    12. Anapalli, Saseendran S. & Ahuja, Lajpat R. & Gowda, Prasanna H. & Ma, Liwang & Marek, Gary & Evett, Steven R. & Howell, Terry A., 2016. "Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficients with data in weighing lysimeters," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 274-283.
    13. Lopez-Urrea, R. & Martin de Santa Olalla, F. & Fabeiro, C. & Moratalla, A., 2006. "Testing evapotranspiration equations using lysimeter observations in a semiarid climate," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 15-26, September.
    14. Kar, Gouranga & Kumar, Ashwani & Martha, M., 2007. "Water use efficiency and crop coefficients of dry season oilseed crops," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 73-82, January.
    15. Liu, Y. & Teixeira, J. L. & Zhang, H. J. & Pereira, L. S., 1998. "Model validation and crop coefficients for irrigation scheduling in the North China plain," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 233-246, April.
    16. Anapalli, Saseendran S. & Fisher, Daniel K. & Pinnamaneni, Srinivasa Rao & Reddy, Krishna N., 2020. "Quantifying evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using an eddy covariance approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 233(C).
    17. Bastidas-Obando, E. & Bastiaanssen, W.G.M. & Jarmain, C., 2017. "Estimation of transpiration fluxes from rainfed and irrigated sugarcane in South Africa using a canopy resistance and crop coefficient model," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 94-107.
    18. Gonzalez-Dugo, M.P. & Mateos, L., 2008. "Spectral vegetation indices for benchmarking water productivity of irrigated cotton and sugarbeet crops," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 48-58, January.
    19. Allen, Richard G. & Pereira, Luis S. & Howell, Terry A. & Jensen, Marvin E., 2011. "Evapotranspiration information reporting: II. Recommended documentation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(6), pages 921-929, April.
    20. Gong, Daozhi & Mei, Xurong & Hao, Weiping & Wang, Hanbo & Caylor, Kelly K., 2017. "Comparison of ET partitioning and crop coefficients between partial plastic mulched and non-mulched maize fields," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 181(C), pages 23-34.
    21. Feng, Yu & Hao, Weiping & Gao, Lili & Li, Haoru & Gong, Daozhi & Cui, Ningbo, 2019. "Comparison of maize water consumption at different scales between mulched and non-mulched croplands," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 216(C), pages 315-324.
    22. Kumar, Vipan & Udeigwe, Theophilus K. & Clawson, Ernest L. & Rohli, Robert V. & Miller, Donnie K., 2015. "Crop water use and stage-specific crop coefficients for irrigated cotton in the mid-south, United States," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 63-69.
    23. Jovanovic, N. & Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Pôças, I. & Cantore, V. & Todorovic, M., 2020. "A review of strategies, methods and technologies to reduce non-beneficial consumptive water use on farms considering the FAO56 methods," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 239(C).
    24. Alberto, Ma. Carmelita R. & Quilty, James R. & Buresh, Roland J. & Wassmann, Reiner & Haidar, Sam & Correa, Teodoro Q. & Sandro, Joseph M., 2014. "Actual evapotranspiration and dual crop coefficients for dry-seeded rice and hybrid maize grown with overhead sprinkler irrigation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 1-12.
    25. Kar, Gouranga & Verma, Harsh Nath, 2005. "Phenology based irrigation scheduling and determination of crop coefficient of winter maize in rice fallow of eastern India," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 75(3), pages 169-183, July.
    26. Bezerra, Bergson G. & da Silva, Bernardo B. & Bezerra, José R.C. & Sofiatti, Valdinei & dos Santos, Carlos A.C., 2012. "Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for sprinkler-irrigated cotton crop in Apodi Plateau semiarid lands of Brazil," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 86-93.
    27. Ko, Jonghan & Piccinni, Giovanni & Marek, Thomas & Howell, Terry, 2009. "Determination of growth-stage-specific crop coefficients (Kc) of cotton and wheat," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(12), pages 1691-1697, December.
    28. Evett, Steven R. & Schwartz, Robert C. & Casanova, Joaquin J. & Heng, Lee K., 2012. "Soil water sensing for water balance, ET and WUE," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 1-9.
    29. Vu, Son Hong & Watanabe, Hirozumi & Takagi, Kazuhiro, 2005. "Application of FAO-56 for evaluating evapotranspiration in simulation of pollutant runoff from paddy rice field in Japan," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 195-210, August.
    30. Cameira, M. R. & Fernando, R. M. & Pereira, L. S., 2003. "Monitoring water and NO3-N in irrigated maize fields in the Sorraia Watershed, Portugal," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 199-216, May.
    31. Wang, Tianxin & Melton, Forrest S. & Pôças, Isabel & Johnson, Lee F. & Thao, Touyee & Post, Kirk & Cassel-Sharma, Florence, 2021. "Evaluation of crop coefficient and evapotranspiration data for sugar beets from landsat surface reflectances using micrometeorological measurements and weighing lysimetry," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 244(C).
    32. Rashid Niaghi, Ali & Jia, Xinhua & Steele, Dean D. & Scherer, Thomas F., 2019. "Drainage water management effects on energy flux partitioning, evapotranspiration, and crop coefficients of corn," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 225(C).
    33. Allen, Richard G. & Pereira, Luis S. & Howell, Terry A. & Jensen, Marvin E., 2011. "Evapotranspiration information reporting: I. Factors governing measurement accuracy," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(6), pages 899-920, April.
    34. Minhas, P.S. & Ramos, Tiago B. & Ben-Gal, Alon & Pereira, Luis S., 2020. "Coping with salinity in irrigated agriculture: Crop evapotranspiration and water management issues," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 227(C).
    35. Ding, Risheng & Kang, Shaozhong & Zhang, Yanqun & Hao, Xinmei & Tong, Ling & Du, Taisheng, 2013. "Partitioning evapotranspiration into soil evaporation and transpiration using a modified dual crop coefficient model in irrigated maize field with ground-mulching," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 85-96.
    36. Bassil, Elias S. & Kaffka, Stephen R., 2002. "Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to saline soils and irrigation: I. Consumptive water use," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 67-80, March.
    37. Chauhdary, Junaid Nawaz & Bakhsh, Allah & Ragab, Ragab & Khaliq, Abdul & Engel, Bernard A. & Rizwan, Muhammad & Shahid, Muhammad Adnan & Nawaz, Qamar, 2020. "Modeling corn growth and root zone salinity dynamics to improve irrigation and fertigation management under semi-arid conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 230(C).
    38. Piccinni, Giovanni & Ko, Jonghan & Marek, Thomas & Howell, Terry, 2009. "Determination of growth-stage-specific crop coefficients (KC) of maize and sorghum," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(12), pages 1698-1704, December.
    39. Payero, José O. & Irmak, Suat, 2013. "Daily energy fluxes, evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of soybean," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 129(C), pages 31-43.
    40. Er-Raki, S. & Chehbouni, A. & Guemouria, N. & Duchemin, B. & Ezzahar, J. & Hadria, R., 2007. "Combining FAO-56 model and ground-based remote sensing to estimate water consumptions of wheat crops in a semi-arid region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 41-54, January.
    41. Bassil, Elias S. & Kaffka, Stephen R., 2002. "Response of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to saline soils and irrigation: II. Crop response to salinity," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 81-92, March.
    42. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Jovanovic, N., 2020. "Soil water balance models for determining crop water and irrigation requirements and irrigation scheduling focusing on the FAO56 method and the dual Kc approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 241(C).
    43. Paredes, P. & Rodrigues, G.C. & Alves, I. & Pereira, L.S., 2014. "Partitioning evapotranspiration, yield prediction and economic returns of maize under various irrigation management strategies," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 27-39.
    44. Dingre, S.K. & Gorantiwar, S.D., 2020. "Determination of the water requirement and crop coefficient values of sugarcane by field water balance method in semiarid region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 232(C).
    45. Kjaersgaard, J.H. & Plauborg, F. & Mollerup, M. & Petersen, C.T. & Hansen, S., 2008. "Crop coefficients for winter wheat in a sub-humid climate regime," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 95(8), pages 918-924, August.
    46. Garcia, Magali & Raes, Dirk & Jacobsen, Sven-Erik, 2003. "Evapotranspiration analysis and irrigation requirements of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) in the Bolivian highlands," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 119-134, May.
    47. Wu, Yao & Liu, Tingxi & Paredes, Paula & Duan, Limin & Pereira, Luis S., 2015. "Water use by a groundwater dependent maize in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia: Evapotranspiration partitioning and capillary rise," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 222-232.
    48. López-Urrea, R. & Montoro, A. & González-Piqueras, J. & López-Fuster, P. & Fereres, E., 2009. "Water use of spring wheat to raise water productivity," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(9), pages 1305-1310, September.
    49. Karam, Fadi & Lahoud, Rafic & Masaad, Randa & Kabalan, Rabih & Breidi, Joelle & Chalita, Claude & Rouphael, Youssef, 2007. "Evapotranspiration, seed yield and water use efficiency of drip irrigated sunflower under full and deficit irrigation conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 90(3), pages 213-223, June.
    50. Tyagi, N. K. & Sharma, D. K. & Luthra, S. K., 2000. "Determination of evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of rice and sunflower with lysimeter," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 41-54, June.
    51. Hou, Lizhu & Wenninger, Jochen & Shen, Jiangen & Zhou, Yangxiao & Bao, Han & Liu, Haijun, 2014. "Assessing crop coefficients for Zea mays in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment, northwest China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 140(C), pages 37-47.
    52. DeTar, W.R., 2009. "Crop coefficients and water use for cowpea in the San Joaquin Valley of California," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 53-66, January.
    53. Ran, Hui & Kang, Shaozhong & Li, Fusheng & Tong, Ling & Ding, Risheng & Du, Taisheng & Li, Sien & Zhang, Xiaotao, 2017. "Performance of AquaCrop and SIMDualKc models in evapotranspiration partitioning on full and deficit irrigated maize for seed production under plastic film-mulch in an arid region of China," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 20-32.
    54. Facchi, A. & Gharsallah, O. & Corbari, C. & Masseroni, D. & Mancini, M. & Gandolfi, C., 2013. "Determination of maize crop coefficients in humid climate regime using the eddy covariance technique," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 131-141.
    55. Rosa, R.D. & Ramos, T.B. & Pereira, L.S., 2016. "The dual Kc approach to assess maize and sweet sorghum transpiration and soil evaporation under saline conditions: Application of the SIMDualKc model," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 77-94.
    56. Odhiambo, L.O. & Irmak, S., 2012. "Evaluation of the impact of surface residue cover on single and dual crop coefficient for estimating soybean actual evapotranspiration," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 221-234.
    57. Wang, Xingwang & Huo, Zailin & Shukla, Manoj K. & Wang, Xianghao & Guo, Ping & Xu, Xu & Huang, Guanhua, 2020. "Energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over irrigated maize field in an arid area with shallow groundwater," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 228(C).
    58. Jiang, Xuelian & Kang, Shaozhong & Tong, Ling & Li, Fusheng & Li, Donghao & Ding, Risheng & Qiu, Rangjian, 2014. "Crop coefficient and evapotranspiration of grain maize modified by planting density in an arid region of northwest China," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 135-143.
    59. Wei, Zheng & Paredes, Paula & Liu, Yu & Chi, Wei Wei & Pereira, Luis S., 2015. "Modelling transpiration, soil evaporation and yield prediction of soybean in North China Plain," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 43-53.
    60. Alberto, Ma. Carmelita R. & Wassmann, Reiner & Hirano, Takashi & Miyata, Akira & Hatano, Ryusuke & Kumar, Arvind & Padre, Agnes & Amante, Modesto, 2011. "Comparisons of energy balance and evapotranspiration between flooded and aerobic rice fields in the Philippines," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 98(9), pages 1417-1430, July.
    61. Rozenstein, Offer & Haymann, Nitai & Kaplan, Gregoriy & Tanny, Josef, 2018. "Estimating cotton water consumption using a time series of Sentinel-2 imagery," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 207(C), pages 44-52.
    62. Miao, Qingfeng & Rosa, Ricardo D. & Shi, Haibin & Paredes, Paula & Zhu, Li & Dai, Jiaxin & Gonçalves, José M. & Pereira, Luis S., 2016. "Modeling water use, transpiration and soil evaporation of spring wheat–maize and spring wheat–sunflower relay intercropping using the dual crop coefficient approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 211-229.
    63. Drerup, Philipp & Brueck, Holger & Scherer, Heinrich W., 2017. "Evapotranspiration of winter wheat estimated with the FAO 56 approach and NDVI measurements in a temperate humid climate of NW Europe," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 192(C), pages 180-188.
    64. Zhao, Nana & Liu, Yu & Cai, Jiabing & Paredes, Paula & Rosa, Ricardo D. & Pereira, Luis S., 2013. "Dual crop coefficient modelling applied to the winter wheat–summer maize crop sequence in North China Plain: Basal crop coefficients and soil evaporation component," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 93-105.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Paredes, Paula & Trigo, Isabel & de Bruin, Henk & Simões, Nuno & Pereira, Luis S., 2021. "Daily grass reference evapotranspiration with Meteosat Second Generation shortwave radiation and reference ET products," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 248(C).
    2. Darouich, Hanaa & Karfoul, Razan & Ramos, Tiago B. & Moustafa, Ali & Shaheen, Baraa & Pereira, Luis S., 2021. "Crop water requirements and crop coefficients for jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) using the SIMDualKc model and assessing irrigation strategies for the Syrian Akkar region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 255(C).
    3. Rallo, G. & Paço, T.A. & Paredes, P. & Puig-Sirera, À. & Massai, R. & Provenzano, G. & Pereira, L.S., 2021. "Updated single and dual crop coefficients for tree and vine fruit crops," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 250(C).
    4. Gregoriy Kaplan & Lior Fine & Victor Lukyanov & V. S. Manivasagam & Josef Tanny & Offer Rozenstein, 2021. "Normalizing the Local Incidence Angle in Sentinel-1 Imagery to Improve Leaf Area Index, Vegetation Height, and Crop Coefficient Estimations," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(7), pages 1-23, June.
    5. Hunsaker, D.J. & Bronson, K.F., 2021. "FAO56 crop and water stress coefficients for cotton using subsurface drip irrigation in an arid US climate," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 252(C).
    6. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Melton, F. & Johnson, L. & Mota, M. & Wang, T., 2021. "Prediction of crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height: Practical application to vegetable, field and fruit crops with focus on parameterization," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 252(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Melton, F. & Johnson, L. & Mota, M. & Wang, T., 2021. "Prediction of crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height: Practical application to vegetable, field and fruit crops with focus on parameterization," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 252(C).
    2. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Melton, F. & Johnson, L. & Wang, T. & López-Urrea, R. & Cancela, J.J. & Allen, R.G., 2020. "Prediction of crop coefficients from fraction of ground cover and height. Background and validation using ground and remote sensing data," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 241(C).
    3. Jovanovic, N. & Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Pôças, I. & Cantore, V. & Todorovic, M., 2020. "A review of strategies, methods and technologies to reduce non-beneficial consumptive water use on farms considering the FAO56 methods," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 239(C).
    4. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & López-Urrea, R. & Hunsaker, D.J. & Mota, M. & Mohammadi Shad, Z., 2021. "Standard single and basal crop coefficients for vegetable crops, an update of FAO56 crop water requirements approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 243(C).
    5. Miao, Qingfeng & Rosa, Ricardo D. & Shi, Haibin & Paredes, Paula & Zhu, Li & Dai, Jiaxin & Gonçalves, José M. & Pereira, Luis S., 2016. "Modeling water use, transpiration and soil evaporation of spring wheat–maize and spring wheat–sunflower relay intercropping using the dual crop coefficient approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 211-229.
    6. Darouich, Hanaa & Karfoul, Razan & Ramos, Tiago B. & Moustafa, Ali & Shaheen, Baraa & Pereira, Luis S., 2021. "Crop water requirements and crop coefficients for jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) using the SIMDualKc model and assessing irrigation strategies for the Syrian Akkar region," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 255(C).
    7. Pereira, L.S. & Paredes, P. & Jovanovic, N., 2020. "Soil water balance models for determining crop water and irrigation requirements and irrigation scheduling focusing on the FAO56 method and the dual Kc approach," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 241(C).
    8. Zhao, Nana & Liu, Yu & Cai, Jiabing & Paredes, Paula & Rosa, Ricardo D. & Pereira, Luis S., 2013. "Dual crop coefficient modelling applied to the winter wheat–summer maize crop sequence in North China Plain: Basal crop coefficients and soil evaporation component," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 93-105.
    9. Paredes, Paula & Pereira, Luis S. & Rodrigues, Gonçalo C. & Botelho, Nuno & Torres, Maria Odete, 2017. "Using the FAO dual crop coefficient approach to model water use and productivity of processing pea (Pisum sativum L.) as influenced by irrigation strategies," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 5-18.
    10. Rallo, G. & Paço, T.A. & Paredes, P. & Puig-Sirera, À. & Massai, R. & Provenzano, G. & Pereira, L.S., 2021. "Updated single and dual crop coefficients for tree and vine fruit crops," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 250(C).
    11. Pôças, I. & Calera, A. & Campos, I. & Cunha, M., 2020. "Remote sensing for estimating and mapping single and basal crop coefficientes: A review on spectral vegetation indices approaches," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 233(C).
    12. Rosa, R.D. & Ramos, T.B. & Pereira, L.S., 2016. "The dual Kc approach to assess maize and sweet sorghum transpiration and soil evaporation under saline conditions: Application of the SIMDualKc model," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 77-94.
    13. Wang, Yunfei & Cai, Huanjie & Yu, Lianyu & Peng, Xiongbiao & Xu, Jiatun & Wang, Xiaowen, 2020. "Evapotranspiration partitioning and crop coefficient of maize in dry semi-humid climate regime," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 236(C).
    14. Lv, Yuping & Xu, Junzeng & Yang, Shihong & Liu, Xiaoyin & Zhang, Jiangang & Wang, Yijiang, 2018. "Inter-seasonal and cross-treatment variability in single-crop coefficients for rice evapotranspiration estimation and their validation under drying-wetting cycle conditions," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 196(C), pages 154-161.
    15. Ran, Hui & Kang, Shaozhong & Li, Fusheng & Tong, Ling & Ding, Risheng & Du, Taisheng & Li, Sien & Zhang, Xiaotao, 2017. "Performance of AquaCrop and SIMDualKc models in evapotranspiration partitioning on full and deficit irrigated maize for seed production under plastic film-mulch in an arid region of China," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 20-32.
    16. Qiu, Rangjian & Liu, Chunwei & Cui, Ningbo & Wu, Youjie & Wang, Zhenchang & Li, Gen, 2019. "Evapotranspiration estimation using a modified Priestley-Taylor model in a rice-wheat rotation system," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 224(C), pages 1-1.
    17. Mahmoud, Shereif H. & Gan, Thian Yew, 2019. "Irrigation water management in arid regions of Middle East: Assessing spatio-temporal variation of actual evapotranspiration through remote sensing techniques and meteorological data," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 35-47.
    18. Aouade, G. & Ezzahar, J. & Amenzou, N. & Er-Raki, S. & Benkaddour, A. & Khabba, S. & Jarlan, L., 2016. "Combining stable isotopes, Eddy Covariance system and meteorological measurements for partitioning evapotranspiration, of winter wheat, into soil evaporation and plant transpiration in a semi-arid reg," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 181-192.
    19. Xu, Gaoping & Xue, Xuzhang & Wang, Pu & Yang, Zhaoshun & Yuan, Wenya & Liu, Xiufeng & Lou, Chenjun, 2018. "A lysimeter study for the effects of different canopy sizes on evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of summer maize," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 208(C), pages 1-6.
    20. Drerup, Philipp & Brueck, Holger & Scherer, Heinrich W., 2017. "Evapotranspiration of winter wheat estimated with the FAO 56 approach and NDVI measurements in a temperate humid climate of NW Europe," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 192(C), pages 180-188.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:agiwat:v:243:y:2021:i:c:s0378377419322590. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.