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The Influences of Economic Indicators on Environmental Pollution in Malaysia


  • Foo Shi He

    (Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.)

  • Gerald Goh Guan Gan

    (Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.)

  • Usama Al-mulali

    (Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.)

  • Sakiru Adebola Solarin

    (Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia.)


This study aims to investigate the relationship between environmental degradation (ecological footprint) and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), financial liberalisation, energy consumption, urbanisation, and trade openness in Malaysia. The use of financial liberalisation is driven by the factor that majority of the previous studies focused on financial development that has a narrow definition. Autoregressive distributed lag model and Granger causality test has been used to identify the relationship between the variables from 1978 to 2013. The result shows that environmental Kuznets curve model does not apply in Malaysia due to the U-shape relationship between financial liberalisation and ecological footprint. Positive relationships are identified between GDP, trade openness, energy consumption and ecological footprint. The results of the study suggest that Malaysia should improve its energy efficiency and focus more on its environmental well-being while increasing its GDP.

Suggested Citation

  • Foo Shi He & Gerald Goh Guan Gan & Usama Al-mulali & Sakiru Adebola Solarin, 2019. "The Influences of Economic Indicators on Environmental Pollution in Malaysia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(2), pages 123-131.
  • Handle: RePEc:eco:journ2:2019-02-15

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Azam, Muhammad & Khan, Abdul Qayyum & Zaman, Khalid & Ahmad, Mehboob, 2015. "Factors determining energy consumption: Evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1123-1131.
    2. Abid, Mehdi, 2016. "Impact of economic, financial, and institutional factors on CO2 emissions: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa economies," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 85-94.
    3. Atici, Cemal, 2012. "Carbon emissions, trade liberalization, and the Japan–ASEAN interaction: A group-wise examination," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 167-178.
    4. Al-mulali, Usama & Binti Che Sab, Che Normee, 2012. "The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 180-186.
    5. Abbasi, Faiza & Riaz, Khalid, 2016. "CO2 emissions and financial development in an emerging economy: An augmented VAR approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 102-114.
    6. Boutabba, Mohamed Amine, 2014. "The impact of financial development, income, energy and trade on carbon emissions: Evidence from the Indian economy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 33-41.
    7. Ang, James B. & McKibbin, Warwick J., 2007. "Financial liberalization, financial sector development and growth: Evidence from Malaysia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 215-233, September.
    8. Alexander Bass, 2018. "Financial Markets and Electricity Consumption Nexus in Russia," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(3), pages 82-86.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ouarda Belkacem Layachi, 2019. "Effects of Energy Prices on Environmental Pollution: Testing Environmental Kuznets Curve for Algeria," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(5), pages 401-408.
    2. Hanadi Taher, 2020. "Financial Development and Economic Growth Impact on The Environmental Degradation in Lebanon," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 10(3), pages 311-316.
    3. Yung-Jaan Lee, 2019. "Ecological Footprint and Water Footprint of Taipei," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(20), pages 1-16, October.

    More about this item


    Financial liberalisation; Ecological Footprint; Malaysia;

    JEL classification:

    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • P28 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Natural Resources; Environment
    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • P34 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Finance
    • P43 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Finance; Public Finance


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