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Geopolítica De La Ayuda. ¿Cómo Optimizar El Impacto De La Ayuda Sobre El Crecimiento?

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  • TEZANOS, Sergio

Abstract

El debate sobre cómo asignar geográficamente la ayuda ha estado vigente desde los albores del sistema de cooperación internacional. Si bien se acepta comúnmente que la ayuda debe ser una respuesta solidaria a las necesidades socio-económicas del mundo en desarrollo, las prácticas distributivas de los donantes cuestionan a menudo este principio inspirador. La “geopolítica de la ayuda” ha sido objeto de intenso análisis, habiéndose concedido mayor atención a los estudios de carácter “positivo”, que a sus contrapartes “normativos”. Este artículo revisa esta segunda categoría de estudios, distinguiendo tres enfoques distributivos distintos: i) el enfoque marginalista, que propone esquemas de asignación que maximizan la reducción de la pobreza en el mundo; ii) el enfoque de igualdad de oportunidades, que propone criterios distributivos basados en principios post-utilitaristas; y, iii) el enfoque pragmático de asignación, basado en “rendimientos”, que han aplicado unos pocos donantes. Finalmente se resumen las principales potencialidades y limitaciones de esta literatura, y se exponen sus principales contribuciones para la conformación de un sistema de ayuda “eficiente”, que promueva la coordinación geográfica entre donantes. The debate over how to optimally allocate aid has been in force since the beginning of the co-operation system. Although it has been commonly accepted that aid should be a solidarity response to the socio-economic needs of the developing world, donors’ distributive practices often question this inspiring principle. The “aid geography” has been intensively researched, and greater attention has been paid on “positive” analysis than on “normative” analysis. This paper shall revise this second category of analysis, distinguishing three different distributive approaches: i) the marginalist approach, which allocates aid in order to maximize poverty reduction; ii) the equal opportunity approach, which proposes a distributive criteria based on post-welfarist principles; and iii) the pragmatic performance-based approach, which has been applied by a limited number of donors. Finally, it shall summarize the main potentialities and limitations of this literature and present its main contributions to building an “efficient” aid system that promotes geographical coordination among donors.

Suggested Citation

  • TEZANOS, Sergio, 2009. "Geopolítica De La Ayuda. ¿Cómo Optimizar El Impacto De La Ayuda Sobre El Crecimiento?," Estudios Economicos de Desarrollo Internacional, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 9(2), pages 55-88.
  • Handle: RePEc:eaa:eedein:v:9:y2009:i:9_9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 1997. "What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about Recent Changes in Distribution and Poverty?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(2), pages 357-382, May.
    2. Mark McGillivray & Simon Feeny & Niels Hermes & Robert Lensink, 2006. "Controversies over the impact of development aid: it works; it doesn't; it can, but that depends …," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(7), pages 1031-1050.
    3. Wood, Adrian, 2008. "Looking Ahead Optimally in Allocating Aid," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1135-1151, July.
    4. Hansen, Henrik & Tarp, Finn, 2001. "Aid and growth regressions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 547-570, April.
    5. R. Lensink & H. White, 2001. "Are There Negative Returns to Aid?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(6), pages 42-65.
    6. Robert Lensink & Howard White, 2000. "Aid allocation, poverty reduction and the Assessing Aid report," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(3), pages 399-412, April.
    7. Llavador, Humberto G. & Roemer, John E., 2001. "An equal-opportunity approach to the allocation of international aid," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 147-171, February.
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