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Are Exports and Imports Cointegrated? Evidence from Nine MENA Countries

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  • Jamal HUSEIN

Abstract

The aim of this article is to examine the long-run convergence (cointegration) between exports and imports for nine MENA (Middle East and North Africa) countries. Evidence of cointegration ensures that trade imbalances are sustainable. The article explores this issue by applying the bounds testing approach to cointegration and by using annual data. The findings of cointegration between exports and imports for Iran, Israel, Jordan, and Tunisia indicate that these countries are not in violation of their international budget constraint. In addition, the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests confirm stability of the estimated parameters.

Suggested Citation

  • Jamal HUSEIN, 2014. "Are Exports and Imports Cointegrated? Evidence from Nine MENA Countries," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 14(1), pages 123-132.
  • Handle: RePEc:eaa:aeinde:v:14:y:2014:i:1_9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    2. Hakkio, Craig S & Rush, Mark, 1991. "Is the Budget Deficit "Too Large?"," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 29(3), pages 429-445, July.
    3. Husted, Steven, 1992. "The Emerging U.S. Current Account Deficit in the 1980s: A Cointegration Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(1), pages 159-166, February.
    4. Tuck Cheong Tang, 2006. "Are Imports And Exports In The Oic Member Countries Cointegrated? A Reexamination," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 14(1), pages 49-79, December.
    5. Hansen, Bruce E, 2002. "Tests for Parameter Instability in Regressions with I(1) Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 45-59, January.
    6. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    7. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Seema Narayan, 2005. "Are exports and imports cointegrated? Evidence from 22 least developed countries," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(6), pages 375-378.
    8. Manuchehr Irandoust & Johan Ericsson, 2004. "Are Imports and Exports Cointegrated? An International Comparison," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 49-64, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Haque, M.I., 2015. "Are exports and imports of Saudi Arabia cointegrated? An empirical study," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 15(1), pages 111-124.
    2. Arize, Augustine C. & BAHMANI-OSKOOEE, Mohsen, 2017. "Do Imports and Exports Adjust Nonlinearly? Evidence from 100 Countries," MPRA Paper 82807, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    Keywords

    exports; imports; cointegration; ARDL.;

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