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Die Arbeitsmarkteffekte der Ost-West-Migration: theoretische Überlegungen, Simulationen und empirische Befunde

  • Herbert Brücker

In den gegenwärtigen Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Union bestehen erhebliche Befürchtungen, dass die Einführung der Freizügigkeit für die Beitrittsländer zu sinkenden Löhnen und steigender Arbeitslosigkeit führen wird. In diesem Beitrag werden die Effekte der Migration für Einkommen und Arbeitsmarkt in den Ziel- und Herkunftsländern im Rahmen eines einfachen Simulationsmodells kalibriert und die Ergebnisse der Simulationen den empirischen Erkenntnissen ökonometrischer Studien gegenübergestellt. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen, dass die Migration zu einem erheblichen Einkommensgewinn in der Region insgesamt führt, der allerdings überwiegend den Migranten selbst zugute kommt. Bei flexiblen Löhnen und räumenden Arbeitsmärkten gewinnen die Einheimischen in den Zielländern, während die Einheimischen in den Herkunftsländern verlieren. Im Falle von Lohnrigiditäten und Arbeitslosigkeit sind die Effekte umgekehrt. Die Ergebnisse ökonometrischer Studien zeigen, dass die Lohn- und Beschäftigungseffekte der Migration sehr viel geringer als in dem Simulationsmodell ausfallen. Dies könnte darauf zurückzuführen sein, dass Deutschland als offene Volkswirtschaft sich nicht durch sinkende Löhne und steigende Arbeitslosigkeit an eine Ausweitung des Arbeitsangebotes durch Migration anpasst, sondern durch eine Veränderung der Produktions- und Handelsstrukturen.

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Article provided by DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research in its journal Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung.

Volume (Year): 72 (2003)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 579-593

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Handle: RePEc:diw:diwvjh:72-40-8
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  1. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 1998. "East-West Trade and Migration: The Austro-German Case," IZA Discussion Papers 2, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Zimmermann, Klaus F, 1993. "Native Wage Impacts of Foreign Labour: A Random Effects Panel Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 851, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Rachel M. Friedberg & Jennifer Hunt, 1995. "The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 23-44, Spring.
  4. George J. Borjas, 2001. "Does Immigration Grease the Wheels of the Labor Market?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 32(1), pages 69-134.
  5. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimüller, Josef, 1994. "Do Immigrants Displace Native Workers? The Austrian Experience," CEPR Discussion Papers 991, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economic Benefits from Immigration," NBER Working Papers 4955, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Zimmermann, Klaus F, 1996. "Wage and Mobility Effects of Trade and Migration," CEPR Discussion Papers 1318, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Daniel Trefler, 1997. "Immigrants and Natives in General Equilibrium Trade Models," NBER Working Papers 6209, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Andrea Gavosto & Alessandra Venturini & Claudia Villosio, 1999. "Do Immigrants Compete with Natives?," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 13(3), pages 603-621, 09.
  10. Anthony J. Venables, 1997. "Trade Liberalisation and Factor Mobility: An Overview," CEP Discussion Papers dp0352, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  11. Thomas Bauer, 1998. "Do Immigrants Reduce Natives' Wages? Evidence from Germany," Departmental Working Papers 199802, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
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