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Education and Entry into Motherhood: The Czech Republic during State Socialism and the Transition Period (1970-1997)

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  • FFF1Vladimíra NNN1Kantorová

    (United Nations)

Abstract

The Czech Republic presently shows one of the lowest total fertility rates (TFR) in Europe. A decline in period fertility followed the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy that started in 1990. In this study, we investigate women’s transition to first births, focusing on the impact of female education. We make a distinction between the effects of education attainment and time elapsed since completion of education. There are two aspects to the role of education that influenced the delay of entry into motherhood in the 1990s. First, during early adulthood women spent more time in education than their contemporaries did in the era of state socialism. Second, women entered motherhood much later after completion of education than before, which contrasts with the previous pattern of a strong immediate effect the completion of studies had on first-birth risks. The decline in first-birth risks in the 1990s applies more so to women with a higher level of education than to those with a lower level. We argue that greater education differentiation of labor market opportunities and constraints brought about greater education differentiation in the timing of entry into motherhood.

Suggested Citation

  • FFF1Vladimíra NNN1Kantorová, 2004. "Education and Entry into Motherhood: The Czech Republic during State Socialism and the Transition Period (1970-1997)," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 3(10), pages 245-274, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:dem:drspec:v:3:y:2004:i:10
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Daniel Münich & Jan Svejnar & Katherine Terrell, 2005. "Returns to Human Capital Under The Communist Wage Grid and During the Transition to a Market Economy," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 100-123, February.
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    4. Ariane Pailhé, 2000. "Gender Discrimination in Central Europe during the Systemic Transition," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 8(2), pages 505-535, July.
    5. R. Golinelli & R. Orsi, 2001. "Hungary and Poland," Working Papers 424, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    6. Stepan Jurajda, 2000. "Gender Wage Gap and Segregation in Late Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 306, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    7. Siv Gustafsson, 2001. "Optimal age at motherhood. Theoretical and empirical considerations on postponement of maternity in Europe," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 14(2), pages 225-247.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michaela Potančoková & Boris Vano & Viera Pilinská & Danuša Jurčová, 2008. "Slovakia: Fertility between tradition and modernity," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 19(25), pages 973-1018, July.
    2. Bicakova, Alena & Kaliskova, Klara, 2016. "Career Breaks after Childbirth: The Impact of Family Leave Reforms in the Czech Republic," IZA Discussion Papers 10149, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Ron Lesthaeghe, 2010. "The Unfolding Story of the Second Demographic Transition," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 36(2), pages 211-251.
    4. Nicole Hiekel & Aart Liefbroer & Anne-Rigt Poortman, 2014. "Understanding Diversity in the Meaning of Cohabitation Across Europe," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 30(4), pages 391-410, November.
    5. Hill Kulu & Nadja Milewski, 2007. "Family change and migration in the life course," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(19), pages 567-590, December.
    6. Jan Van Bavel & Joanna Rózanska-Putek, 2010. "Second birth rates across Europe: interactions between women’s level of education and child care enrolment," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 8(1), pages 107-138.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    education; first birth; state socialism; transition to market economy; women's education;

    JEL classification:

    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General

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