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Language and Earnings in Quebec: Trends over Twenty Years, 1970-1990


  • Morton Stelcner
  • Daniel M. Shapiro


Earnings differentials among Quebec's linguistic groups (francophones, anglophones, and allophones) have been the subject of concern over the past three decades. Using data from the 1991 Census, this paper examines linguistic earnings disparities by gender in 1990, and compares the results to those obtained from the 1971 and 1981 Census data. The main findings are that, since the passage of Bill 101 in 1977, the earnings gap between (unilingual and bilingual) anglophones and bilingual francophones has indeed closed. However, the earnings situation of allophones (regardless of official languages spoken) has worsened as did that of unilingual francophones.

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  • Morton Stelcner & Daniel M. Shapiro, 1997. "Language and Earnings in Quebec: Trends over Twenty Years, 1970-1990," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 23(2), pages 115-140, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpp:issued:v:23:y:1997:i:2:p:115-140

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lawrence B. Smith, 1976. "Myths and Realities in Mortgage Finance and the Housing Crisis," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 2(2), pages 240-248, Spring.
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    Cited by:

    1. Antonio Di Paolo & Aysit Tansel, 2015. "Returns to Foreign Language Skills in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(4), pages 407-421, April.
    2. Armstrong, Alex, 2015. "Equilibria and efficiency in bilingual labour markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 204-220.
    3. Wang, Haining & Smyth, Russell & Cheng, Zhiming, 2017. "The economic returns to proficiency in English in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 91-104.

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