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An Initial Review of the Characteristics and Determinants of Female Entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico


  • Marisela Santiago Castro


  • Michael J Pisani



This paper outlines the characteristics and determinants of Puerto Rican female entrepreneurs in 2007. This study utilizes data from the Adult Population Survey (APS) for 2007 from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Project. We find that female entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico are most likely sole owners of their business establishment, face many local competitors, and do not generally export their goods or services outside of the Island. The primary motivation for business start-up was business opportunism along with a personal goal of greater independence at the workplace. Education serves as a fundamental determinant of female entrepreneurship. Características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico: una mirada inicial Este artículo describe las características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico para el 2007. El estudio utiliza los datos de la Encuesta de la Población Adulta del Proyecto de Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, por sus siglas en inglés). Se encontró que las mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico tienden a ser dueñas únicas de sus negocios, tienen muchos competidores locales, y usualmente no exportan sus bienes o servicios fuera de la Isla. La motivación primaria para empezar el negocio fue tener una oportunidad de negocio junto a una meta personal de mayor independencia en el lugar de trabajo. La educación es un determinante fundamental de ser empresaria en Puerto Rico.

Suggested Citation

  • Marisela Santiago Castro & Michael J Pisani, 2013. "An Initial Review of the Characteristics and Determinants of Female Entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico," Revista Ad-Minister, Universidad EAFIT, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000475:011686

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Paul Reynolds & Niels Bosma & Erkko Autio & Steve Hunt & Natalie De Bono & Isabel Servais & Paloma Lopez-Garcia & Nancy Chin, 2005. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998–2003," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 205-231, February.
    2. Zoltan Acs & José Amorós, 2008. "Entrepreneurship and competitiveness dynamics in Latin America," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 305-322, October.
    3. Kenneth Clark & Stephen Drinkwater & Derek Leslie, 1998. "Ethnicity and self-employment earnings in Britain 1973-95," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(10), pages 631-634.
    4. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    5. Gatewood, Elizabeth J. & Shaver, Kelly G. & Gartner, William B., 1995. "A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 371-391, September.
    6. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 1998. "Ethnicity and Self-Employment in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(3), pages 383-407, August.
    7. Ruiz-Vargas, Yolanda, 2000. "Small business financing sources between immigrants and natives in Puerto Rico," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 387-399.
    8. Birkbeck, Chris, 1978. "Self-employed Proletarians in an informal factory: The case of Cali's garbage dump," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 6(9-10), pages 1173-1185.
    9. Mark Casson & Nigel Wadeson, 2007. "The Discovery of Opportunities: Extending the Economic Theory of the Entrepreneur," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 285-300, April.
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    More about this item


    Women; entrepreneurship; female entrepreneurship; GEM; Puerto Rico; Mujeres; emprendimiento; GEM; Puerto Rico;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship


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