The visible minority earnings gap across generations of Canadians
To what extent the earnings gaps facing Canada's visible minorities reflect discrimination is a question of tremendous policy interest. This paper argues that failing to account for the limited Canadian ancestry of visible minorities overestimates discrimination if immigrant assimilation is an intergenerational process. Using the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Censuses, weekly earnings, conditional on a rich set of worker and job characteristics, are compared with child immigrant, second-, and third-and-higher-generation Canadian men. The results reveal a tendency for earnings to increase across subsequent generations of visible minority, but not white, men. Though the pattern is strongest between the first and second generation, for black men it is also evident between the Canadian born with and without a Canadian-born parent. Despite this progress, for most visible minority groups earnings gaps are identified even among third-and-higher-generation Canadians.
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Volume (Year): 43 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 (August)
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