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Encompassing: Concepts and Implementation

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  • Christophe Bontemps
  • Grayham E. Mizon

Abstract

The encompassing principle has been carefully and precisely defined in various contexts, since its first appearance in the 1980s literature in numerous papers by Hendry, Mizon and Richard. Since then, several distinct notions of encompassing have been proposed and still coexist in the literature. We describe, illustrate and connect these notions in this paper. We start with the intuitive properties of exact encompassing between estimated models and compare it with its testable counterpart, approximate encompassing. We examine these notions and their main properties within static and dynamic, parametric and non-parametric, classical and Bayesian models and estimators. Encompassing or the lack of encompassing, is also studied via the concepts of parsimonious and partial encompassing. Pseudo-true values, which are central elements in measuring and testing approximate encompassing, are defined in line with the concept of specificity between models. We also examine the role played by the data generating process in the different approaches in the literature. Copyright (c) Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the Department of Economics, University of Oxford, 2008.

Suggested Citation

  • Christophe Bontemps & Grayham E. Mizon, 2008. "Encompassing: Concepts and Implementation," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(s1), pages 721-750, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:70:y:2008:i:s1:p:721-750
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    Cited by:

    1. Ericsson, Neil R., 2017. "Economic forecasting in theory and practice: An interview with David F. Hendry," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 523-542.
    2. Luigi Ermini & David F. Hendry, 2008. "Log Income vs. Linear Income: An Application of the Encompassing Principle," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(s1), pages 807-827, December.
    3. Maozu Lu & Grayham E. Mizon & Chiara Monfardini, 2008. "Simulation Encompassing: Testing Non-nested Hypotheses," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(s1), pages 781-806, December.
    4. Ericsson, Neil R., 2017. "How biased are U.S. government forecasts of the federal debt?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 543-559.
    5. Josh Ryan-Collins, 2015. "Is Monetary Financing Inflationary? A Case Study of the Canadian Economy, 1935-75," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_848, Levy Economics Institute.
    6. David F Hendry & John N J Muellbauer, 2018. "The future of macroeconomics: macro theory and models at the Bank of England," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(1-2), pages 287-328.
    7. Garret S. Christensen & Edward Miguel, 2016. "Transparency, Reproducibility, and the Credibility of Economics Research," NBER Working Papers 22989, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Hendry, David F. & Mizon, Grayham E., 2014. "Unpredictability in economic analysis, econometric modeling and forecasting," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(1), pages 186-195.

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