IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/irvfin/v9y2009i1-2p133-175.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Pyramidal Discounts: Tunneling or Overinvestment?-super-

Author

Listed:
  • Martin Holmén
  • Peter Högfeldt

Abstract

Swedish families exploit the strong separation between ownership and control in pyramiding to establish control over several firms' internal cash flows via a very small capital investment. We establish that the discounts on the portfolio firms at the bottom of the pyramid as well as pyramid holding company are directly linked to costs from overinvestment that increase with the separation between ownership and control. In a financially developed economy where pyramids are transparent and the tax system regulates the flow of dividends within the pyramid and to shareholders, the primary cause of the discounts is not tunneling but overinvestment costs. Copyright (c) 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) International Review of Finance Ltd. 2009.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Holmén & Peter Högfeldt, 2009. "Pyramidal Discounts: Tunneling or Overinvestment?-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 9(1-2), pages 133-175.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:irvfin:v:9:y:2009:i:1-2:p:133-175
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-2443.2009.01088.x
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Steven A. Ross, 2002. "Neoclassical Finance, Alternative Finance and the Closed End Fund Puzzle," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 8(2), pages 129-137.
    2. Holmén, Martin & Knopf, John D., 2004. "Minority Shareholder Protections and the Private Benefits of Control for Swedish Mergers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(01), pages 167-191, March.
    3. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
    4. Goergen, Marc & Renneboog, Luc, 2001. "Investment policy, internal financing and ownership concentration in the UK," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 257-284, September.
    5. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    6. Nathalie Moyen, 2004. "Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities: Constrained versus Unconstrained Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(5), pages 2061-2092, October.
    7. Claessens, Stijn & Fan, Joseph P.H. & Lang, Larry H.P., 2006. "The benefits and costs of group affiliation: Evidence from East Asia," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-26, March.
    8. Henrik Cronqvist & Fredrik Heyman & Mattias Nilsson & Helena Svaleryd & Jonas Vlachos, 2009. "Do Entrenched Managers Pay Their Workers More?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 309-339, February.
    9. Malcolm Baker & Jeremy C. Stein & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2003. "When Does the Market Matter? Stock Prices and the Investment of Equity-Dependent Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 969-1005.
    10. Lee, Charles M C & Shleifer, Andrei & Thaler, Richard H, 1991. " Investor Sentiment and the Closed-End Fund Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 75-109, March.
    11. Harvey, Campbell R. & Lins, Karl V. & Roper, Andrew H., 2004. "The effect of capital structure when expected agency costs are extreme," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 3-30, October.
    12. Cronqvist, Henrik & Nilsson, Mattias, 2003. "Agency Costs of Controlling Minority Shareholders," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(04), pages 695-719, December.
    13. Chirinko, Robert S. & Schaller, Huntley, 2004. "A revealed preference approach to understanding corporate governance problems: Evidence from Canada," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 181-206, October.
    14. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    15. Klaus Gugler & Dennis C. Mueller & B. Burcin Yurtoglu, 2003. "The Impact of Corporate Governance on Investment Returns in Developed and Developing Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(491), pages 511-539, November.
    16. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002. "Ferreting out Tunneling: An Application to Indian Business Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 121-148.
    17. Chirinko, Robert S & Schaller, Huntley, 1995. "Why Does Liquidity Matter in Investment Equations?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(2), pages 527-548, May.
    18. Randall Morck, 2003. "Why Some Double Taxation Might Make Sense: The Special Case of Inter-corporate Dividends," NBER Working Papers 9651, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Brickley, James A. & Schallheim, James S., 1985. "Lifting the Lid on Closed-End Investment Companies: A Case of Abnormal Returns," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(01), pages 107-117, March.
    20. Brickley, James A & Manaster, Steven & Schallheim, James, 1991. "The Tax-Timing Option and the Discounts on Closed-End Investment Companies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(3), pages 287-312, July.
    21. Alexander Dyck & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 537-600, April.
    22. Kee-Hong Bae & Jun-Koo Kang & Jin-Mo Kim, 2002. "Tunneling or Value Added? Evidence from Mergers by Korean Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2695-2740, December.
    23. Randall Morck, 2000. "Introduction to "Concentrated Corporate Ownership"," NBER Chapters,in: Concentrated Corporate Ownership, pages 1-16 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Randall K. Morck, 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number morc00-1, June.
    25. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    26. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. Morck, Randall K. (ed.), 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226536781, July.
    28. Malkiel, Burton G, 1977. "The Valuation of Closed-End Investment-Company Shares," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(3), pages 847-859, June.
    29. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
    30. Heitor V. Almeida & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2006. "A Theory of Pyramidal Ownership and Family Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(6), pages 2637-2680, December.
    31. Tarun Khanna & Krishna Palepu, 2000. "Is Group Affiliation Profitable in Emerging Markets? An Analysis of Diversified Indian Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 867-891, April.
    32. Steven N. Kaplan & Luigi Zingales, 1997. "Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 169-215.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Irfah Najihah Basir Malan & Norhana Salamudin & Noryati Ahmad, 2013. "Determinants of Firm Affiliation to Pyramid Structure: A Survey from Malaysian Public Listed Firms," Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 3(6), pages 549-569, June.
    2. Maurizio Iacopetta & Raoul Minetti & Pietro F. Peretto, 2014. "Financial markets industry dynamics and growth," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/1ani1qs24g9, Sciences Po.
    3. repec:kap:jmgtgv:v:22:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s10997-017-9380-x is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Fogel, Kathy S. & Lee, Kevin K. & Lee, Wayne Y. & Palmberg, Johanna, 2013. "Foreign Investors as Change Agents: The Swedish Firm Experience," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 311, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:irvfin:v:9:y:2009:i:1-2:p:133-175. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=1369-412X .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.