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An Empirical Analysis of the Pricing of Bank Issued Options versus Options Exchange Options


  • Jenke ter Horst
  • Chris Veld


"Since 1998, large investment banks have become active as issuers of options, generally referred to as call warrants or bank-issued options. This has led to an interesting situation in the Netherlands, where simultaneously call warrants are traded on the stock exchange, and long-term call options are traded on the options exchange. Both entitle their holders to buy shares of common stock. We start with a direct comparison between call warrants and call options, written on the same stock and with the same exercise price, but where the call option has a longer time to maturity. In 13 out of 16 cases we find that the call warrants are priced higher, which is a clear violation of basic option pricing rules. In the second part of the analysis we use option pricing models to compare the pricing of call warrants and call options. If implied standard deviations from options are used to price the call warrants, we find that the call warrants are strongly overpriced during the first five trading days. The average overpricing is between 25 and 30%. Only a small part of the overpricing can be explained by rational arguments such as transaction costs. We suggest that the overvaluation can be explained by a combination of an active financial marketing by the banks and the framing effect." Copyright 2007 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Jenke ter Horst & Chris Veld, 2008. "An Empirical Analysis of the Pricing of Bank Issued Options versus Options Exchange Options," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(2), pages 288-314.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:eufman:v:14:y:2008:i:2:p:288-314

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Chan, Chia-Ying & de Peretti, Christian & Qiao, Zhuo & Wong, Wing-Keung, 2012. "Empirical test of the efficiency of the UK covered warrants market: Stochastic dominance and likelihood ratio test approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 162-174.
    2. Dorn, Daniel, 2010. "Investors with too many options?," Working Paper Series 1197, European Central Bank.
    3. Baule, Rainer, 2011. "The order flow of discount certificates and issuer pricing behavior," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 3120-3133, November.
    4. Entrop, Oliver & Fischer, Georg & McKenzie, Michael & Wilkens, Marco & Winkler, Christoph, 2016. "How does pricing affect investors’ product choice? Evidence from the market for discount certificates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 195-215.

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